Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Experimental Investigation on Damage Mechanism of Guar Gum Fracturing Fluid to Low-Permeability Reservoir Based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

[+] Author and Article Information
Tiankui Guo, Facheng Gong, Qiang Lin, Xiaozhi Wang

College of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
Huadong 266580, China

Xin Lin

CNPC Changqing Oilfield,
Xi'an 710065, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 10, 2017; final manuscript received January 6, 2018; published online March 29, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Ray (Zhenhua) Rui.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(7), 072906 (Mar 29, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1633; doi: 10.1115/1.4039324 History: Received November 10, 2017; Revised January 06, 2018

The damage mechanism of fracturing fluids has always been the hot research topic in the development of low-permeability reservoir with hydraulic fracturing. At present, the research in this area is conducted mostly by the conventional core fluid flow test designed with industrial standards, less in the experiment operated from a microperspective. Against the reservoir cores with different permeability, and based on the results of SEM, mercury injection experiment, and core fluid flow test, this paper uses the technology of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to systematically analyze the degree and rule of water-sensitivity, water-block, and solid-phase adsorption damage resulted from hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) and carboxymethyl guar gum (CMG) fracturing fluids, and proposes a comprehensive test method for evaluating the fracturing fluids damage to the reservoir. The test results show that fracturing fluid infiltrating into the core causes the increase of bound water, mobile water retention, and solid-phase macromolecule substance absorption inside the core in varying degrees, decreasing the reservoir permeability. The extent of reservoir water-sensitivity damage is positively correlated with the increment of bound water, and the extent of water-block damage is positively correlated with mobile water retention volume. The adsorption and retention of solid-phase macromolecule substance causes largest loss of core permeability, averaging about 20%, and it is main damage factor of fracturing fluids, the water-sensitivity damage causes 11% of core permeability loss, and the water-block damage causes 7% of loss. As the reservoir permeability doubles, the comprehensive damage resulted from guar gum fracturing fluid decreases by 14%. The comprehensive damage of CMG fracturing fluid to reservoir is 6.6% lower than that of HPG fracturing fluid, and the lower the reservoir permeability, the larger the gap between damage of CMG and HPG fracturing fluids. With the technology of NMR, the objective and accurate evaluation of various damages to reservoir resulted from fracturing fluids is realized, and the corresponding relation between damage mechanism and damage extent is established, which provides reference for research on improvement of fracturing fluid properties and reservoir protection measures.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Xiao, B. , Jiang, T. X. , and Zhang, S. C. , 2016, “ Novel Nanocomposite Fiber-Laden Viscoelastic Fracturing Fluid for Coal Bed Methane Reservoir Stimulation,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(2), p. 022906. [CrossRef]
Guo, T. , Zhang, S. , Zou, Y. , and Xiao, B. , 2015, “ Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation in Shale Gas Reservoir,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 26, pp. 847–856. [CrossRef]
Barati, R. , and Liang, J. T. , 2014, “ A Review of Fracturing Fluid Systems Used for Hydraulic Fracturing of Oil and Gas Wells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 131(16), pp. 318–323. [CrossRef]
Guo, T. K. , Li, Y. C. , Ding, Y. , Qu, Z. Q. , Gai, N. C. , and Rui, Z. H. , 2017, “ Evaluation of Acid Fracturing Treatments in Shale Formation,” Energy Fuels, 31(10), pp. 10479–10489. [CrossRef]
Rui, Z. , Lu, J. , Zhang, Z. , Guo, R. , Ling, K. , Zhang, R. , and Patil, S. , 2017, “ A Quantitative Oil and Gas Reservoir Evaluation System for Development,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 42, pp. 31–39. [CrossRef]
Sedaghat, M. H. , Ghazanfari, M. H. , Parvazdavani, M. , and Morshedi, S. , 2013, “ Experimental Investigation of Microscopic/Macroscopic Efficiency of Polymer Flooding in Fractured Heavy Oil Five-Spot Systems,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 135(3), p. 032901. [CrossRef]
Nasr-EI-Din, H. A. , 2005, “ Formation Damage Induced by Chemical Treatments: Case Histories,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 127(3), pp. 214–224. [CrossRef]
Rui, Z. , Li, C. , Peng, P. , Ling, K. , Chen, G. , Zhou, X. , and Chang, H. , 2017, “ Development of Industry Performance Metrics for Offshore Oil and Gas Project,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 39, pp. 44–53. [CrossRef]
Yegin, C. , Zhang, M. , Talari, J. V. , and Akbulut, M. , 2016, “ Novel Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids With Improved Proppant Carrying Capacity and pH-Adjustable Proppant Deposition Behavior,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 145, pp. 600–608. [CrossRef]
Wang, J. , Liu, H. Q. , Wang, L. , Zhang, H. L. , Luo, H. S. , and Gao, Y. , 2015, “ Apparent Permeability for Gas Transport in Nanopores of Organic Shale Reservoirs Including Multiple Effects,” Int. J. Coal Geol., 152, pp. 50–62. [CrossRef]
Ezeakacha, C. P. , Salehi, S. , and Hayatdavoudi, A. , 2017, “ Experimental Study of Drilling Fluid's Filtration and Mud Cake Evolution in Sandstone Formations,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(2), p. 022912. [CrossRef]
Wilson, M. J. , Wilson, L. , and Patey, I. , 2014, “ The Influence of Individual Clay Minerals on Formation Damage of Reservoir Sandstones: A Critical Review With Some New Insights,” Clay Miner., 49(2), pp. 147–164. [CrossRef]
Wang, J. , and Rahman, S. S. , 2015, “An Investigation of Fluid Leak-Off Due to Osmotic and Capillary Effects and Its Impact on Micro-Fracture Generation During Hydraulic Fracturing Stimulation of Gas Shale,” EUROPEC, Madrid, Spain, June 1–4, SPE Paper No. 174392.
Potter, D. K. , Arfan, A. H. , Imhmed, S. , and Schleifer, N. , 2011, “ Quantifying the Effects of Core Cleaning, Core Flooding and Fines Migration Using Sensitive Magnetic Techniques: Implications for Permeability Determination and Formation Damage,” Petrophysics, 52, pp. 444–451.
Liu, G. , and Ehlig-Economides, C. , 2015, “Comprehensive Global Model for Before-Closure Analysis of an Injection Falloff Fracture Calibration Test,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, TX, Sept. 28–30, SPE Paper No. 174906.
Bennion, B. , and Thomas, F. B. , 2005, “ Formation Damage Issues Impacting the Productivity of Low Permeability, Low Initial Water Saturation Gas Producing Formations,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 127(3), pp. 240–247. [CrossRef]
Bahrami, H. , Rezaee, R. , and Clennell, B. , 2012, “ Water Blocking Damage in Hydraulically Fractured Tight Sand Gas Reservoirs: An Example From Perth Basin, Western Australia,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 88–89, pp. 100–106. [CrossRef]
Zhang, L. , Pu, C. S. , Cui, S. X. , Nasir, K. , and Liu, Y. , 2016, “ Experimental Study on a New Type of Water Shutoff Agent Used in Fractured Low Permeability Reservoir,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(1), p. 012907. [CrossRef]
Ishida, T. , Chen, Q. , Mizuta, Y. , and Roegiers, J. C. , 2004, “ Influence of Fluid Viscosity on the Hydraulic Fracturing Mechanism,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 126(3), pp. 190–200. [CrossRef]
Ren, Z. , Wu, X. , Liu, D. , Rui, R. , Guo, W. , and Chen, Z. , 2016, “ Semi-Analytical Model of the Transient Pressure Behavior of Complex Fracture Networks in Tight Oil Reservoirs,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 35(Pt. A), pp. 497–508. [CrossRef]
Zheng, C. , Zhu, M. M. , Zhou, W. X. , and Zhang, D. K. , 2017, “ A Preliminary Investigation Into the Characterization of Asphaltenes Extracted From an Oil Sand and Two Vacuum Residues From Petroleum Refining Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, DEPT, and MALDI-TOF,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(3), p. 032905. [CrossRef]
Meng, M. M. , Ge, H. K. , Ji, W. M. , Shen, Y. H. , and Su, S. , 2015, “ Monitor the Process of Shale Spontaneous Imbibition in Co-Current and Counter-Current Displacing Gas by Using Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Method,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 27, pp. 336–345. [CrossRef]
Rui, Z. , Han, G. , Zhang, H. , Wang, S. , Pu, H. , and Ling, K. , 2017, “ A New Model to Evaluate Two Leak Points in a Gas Pipeline,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 46, pp. 491–497. [CrossRef]
Liu, D. Q. , Ge, H. K. , Liu, J. R. , Shen, Y. H. , Wang, Y. R. , Liu, Q. , Jin, C. , and Zhang, Y. J. , 2016, “ Experimental Investigation on Aqueous Phase Migration in Unconventional Gas Reservoir Rock Samples by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 36, pp. 837–851. [CrossRef]
Xiao, L. , Mao, Z. Q. , Zou, C. C. , Jin, Y. , and Zhu, J. C. , 2016, “ A New Methodology of Constructing Pseudo Capillary Pressure (Pc) Curves From Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Logs,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 147, pp. 154–167. [CrossRef]
Toumelin, E. , Verdín, C. T. , Sun, B. Q. , and Dunn, K. J. , 2007, “ Random-Walk Technique for Simulating NMR Measurements and 2D NMR Maps of Porous Media With Relaxing and Permeable Boundaries,” J. Magn. Reson., 188(1), pp. 83–96. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ji, W. , Song, U. , Rui, Z. , Meng, M. , and Huang, H. , 2017, “ Pore Characterization of Isolated Organic Matter From High Matured Gas Shale Reservoir,” Int. J. Coal Geol., 174, pp. 31–40. [CrossRef]
Guo, T. K. , Zhang, S. C. , Ge, H. K. , Wang, X. Q. , Lei, X. , and Xiao, B. , 2015, “ A New Method for Evaluation of Fracture Network Formation Capacity of Rock,” Fuel, 140, pp. 778–787. [CrossRef]
Wang, L. , Wang, S. , Zhang, R. , and Rui, Z. , 2017, “ Review of Multi-Scale and Multi-Physical Simulation Technologies for Shale and Tight Gas Reservoir,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 37, pp. 560–578. [CrossRef]
Cui, G. , Ren, S. , Rui, Z. , Ezekiel, J. , Zhang, L. , and Wang, H. , 2017, “ The Influence of Complicated Fluid-Rock Interactions on the Geothermal Exploitation in the CO2 Plume Geothermal System,” Appl. Energy, (in press).
Huang, J. G. , Xu, K. M. , Guo, S. B. , and Guo, H. W. , 2015, “ Comprehensive Study on Pore Structures of Shale Reservoirs Based on SEM, NMR and X-CT,” Geoscience, 29(1), pp. 199–205.
Rui, Z. , Peng, F. , Chang, H. , Ling, K. , Chen, G. , and Zhou, X. , 2017, “ Investigation Into the Performance of Oil and Gas Projects,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 38, pp. 12–20. [CrossRef]
Li, Y. , Jia, D. , Rui, Z. , Peng, J. , Fu, C. , and Zhang, J. , 2017, “ Evaluation Method of Rock Brittleness Based on Statistical Constitutive Relations for Rock Damage,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 153, pp. 123–132. [CrossRef]
Szopinski, D. , Kulicke, W. M. , and Luinstra, G. A. , 2015, “ Structure–Property Relationships of Carboxymethyl Hydroxypropyl Guar Gum in Water and a Hyperentanglement Parameter,” Carbohydr. Polym., 119, pp. 159–166. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hurnaus, T. , and Plank, J. , 2015, “ Behavior of Titania Nanoparticles in Cross-Linking Hydroxypropyl Guar Used in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids for Oil Recovery,” Energy Fuels, 29(6), pp. 3601–3608. [CrossRef]
Xu, Z. D. , Dai, Y. W. , and Li, L. S. , 2016, “ Performance Evaluation on JK-1002 High Temperature Carboxymethyl Gum Fracturing Fluid and Its Application in Jilin Oilfield,” J. Yangtze Univ. (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 13(8), pp. 64–69.
Jiang, J. F. , and Lu, H. J. , 2009, “ Research and Application of New Carboxymethyl Fracture Fluid,” Oil Drill. Prod. Technol., 31(5), pp. 65–68.
Sun, J. , Gamboa, E. , Schechter, D. , and Rui, Z. , 2016, “ An Integrated Workflow for Characterization and Simulation of Complex Fracture Networks Utilizing Microseismic and Horizontal Core Data,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 34, pp. 1347–1360. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) MR-DF NMR analyzer and (b) typical relaxation time spectra of common sandstone core

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

SEM micrographs of cores: (a) compact particle cementation-1#, (b) illitization of particle surface-1#, (c) symbiosis of chlorite and secondary quartz-2#, (d) dissolved particles-2#, (e) relative developmental intergranular pores-5#, and (f) kaolinite in pores-5#

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Capillary force test curves of cores (Pc is capillary force, SHg is mercury saturation)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Histograms of cores pore throat distribution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

NMR T2 spectra on water-sensitivity damage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

NMR T2 spectra on water-block damage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

NMR T2 spectra on solid-phase damage



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In