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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Comparison of Single and Multiple Injection Strategies in a Butanol Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Jaykumar Yadav

Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, India
e-mail: jaykumaryadav03@gmail.com

Asvathanarayanan Ramesh

Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, India
e-mail: aramesh@iitm.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received October 31, 2017; final manuscript received March 3, 2018; published online March 29, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Stephen A. Ciatti.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(7), 072206 (Mar 29, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1606; doi: 10.1115/1.4039546 History: Received October 31, 2017; Revised March 03, 2018

A turbocharged three cylinder automotive common rail diesel engine was modified to operate in the n-butanol diesel dual fuel mode. The quantity of butanol injected by the port fuel injectors and the rail pressure, injection timing, and number of injection pulses of diesel were varied using open engine controllers. Experiments were performed in the dual fuel mode at a constant speed of 1800 rpm at varying brake mean effective pressure (BMEPs). Butanol to diesel energy share was varied, and the injection timing of diesel was always set for highest brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Single pulse injection (SPI) and two pulse injection (TPI) of diesel were evaluated. In SPI, with increase in the butanol to diesel energy share, the BTE remained unchanged. At high loads and high amounts of butanol, the heat release rate (HRR) variation indicated that butanol auto ignited before diesel with both SPI and TPI of diesel. NO emission always decreased because of reduced temperatures due to evaporation of butanol. Butanol also reduced the smoke levels except at high loads. HC levels were always higher. With optimized injection parameters, TPI of diesel resulted in lower NO, similar smoke, and BTE with lesser rate of pressure rise as compared to SPI of diesel in the dual fuel mode at high loads. On the whole, the SPI mode is suitable for low to medium outputs and the TPI mode is suitable for high outputs.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup: 1—Air filter, 2—intake manifold, 3—butanol port fuel injectors, 4—diesel solenoid direct injector, 5—common rail, 6—high pressure pump, 7—diesel fuel tank, 8—butanol fuel tank, 9—charge amplifier, 10—crank angle encoder, 11—data acquisition system, 12—intake manifold pressure sensor, 13—RPM indicator, 14—torque indicator, 15—temp indicator, 16—manifold pressure indicator, 17–19—exhaust gas analyzers, and 20—turbocharger; m1—air flow rate, m2—butanol fuel flow rate, m3—diesel fuel flow rate, m4—intake charge temperature, m5—exhaust gas temperature, m6—exhaust gas sample for analyzer, and P—in-cylinder pressure transducer

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Fig. 2

Diesel fuel injection pulse diagram

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Fig. 3

Variation of BTE with BDES at different loads

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Fig. 4

Variation of NO emission with BDES at different loads

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Fig. 5

Charge cooling due to butanol at 75% load

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Fig. 6

Variation of SOI with BDES at different loads

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Fig. 7

Variation of SMOKE emission with BDES at different loads

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Fig. 8

HRR at 75% load for different BDES

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Fig. 9

Variation of HC emission with BDES at different loads

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Fig. 10

HRR at 25% load for different BDES

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Fig. 11

Comparison of HRR under varying BDES at 50% load with TPI and SPI

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Fig. 12

Comparison of HRR under varying BDES at 100% load with TPI and SPI

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Fig. 13

Variation of combustion parameters with BDES at 25% and 75% load

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Fig. 14

Variation in COV of IMEP with BDES at different loads

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Fig. 15

Comparison of BTE under varying BDES with TPI and SPI

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Fig. 16

Comparison of NO emission under varying BDES with TPI and SPI

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Fig. 17

Variation of in cylinder temperature and pressure with TPI and SPI at 100% load at a BDES = 9%

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Fig. 18

Variation of in cylinder temperature and pressure with TPI and SPI at 100% load at a BDES = 25%

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Fig. 19

Comparison of SMOKE emission under varying BDES with TPI and SPI

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Fig. 20

Variation in HRR under different BDES with TPI at 100% load

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Fig. 21

Comparison of HC emission under varying BDES with TPI and SPI

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Fig. 22

Comparison of MRPR under varying BDES with TPI and SPI

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Fig. 23

Variation in HRR with dwell period with TPI mode at 100% load

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Fig. 24

Variation in BTE, smoke and NO emission with dwell period with TPI mode at 100% load

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Fig. 25

Comparison of performance and emissions in different modes

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