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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Performance Degradation and Poison Build-Up of an Oxidation Catalyst in Two-Stroke Natural Gas Engine Exhaust

[+] Author and Article Information
Marc E. Baumgardner

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Gonzaga University,
502 E. Boone Avenue,
Spokane, WA 99258
e-mail: baumgardner@gonzaga.edu

Daniel B. Olsen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Colorado State University,
1374 Campus Delivery,
Fort Collins, CO 80523
e-mail: Daniel.Olsen@colostate.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received December 19, 2017; final manuscript received February 15, 2018; published online March 29, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Avinash Kumar Agarwal.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(7), 072208 (Mar 29, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1724; doi: 10.1115/1.4039547 History: Received December 19, 2017; Revised February 15, 2018

Due to current and future exhaust emissions regulations, oxidation catalysts are increasingly being added to the exhaust streams of large-bore, two-stroke, natural gas engines. Such catalysts have a limited operational lifetime, primarily due to chemical (i.e., catalyst poisoning) and mechanical fouling resulting from the carry-over of lubrication oil from the cylinders. It is critical for users and catalyst developers to understand the nature and rate of catalyst deactivation under these circumstances. This study examines the degradation of an exhaust oxidation catalyst on a large-bore, two-stroke, lean-burn, natural gas field engine over the course of 2 years. Specifically, this work examines the process by which the catalyst was aged and tested and presents a timeline of catalyst degradation under commercially relevant circumstances. The catalyst was aged in the field for 2-month intervals in the exhaust slipstream of a GMVH-12 engine and intermittently brought back to Colorado State University for both engine testing and catalyst surface analysis. Engine testing consisted of measuring catalyst reduction efficiency as a function of temperature as well as the determination of the light-off temperature for several exhaust components. The catalyst surface was analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques to examine the location and rate of poison deposition. After 2 years online, the catalyst light-off temperature had increased ∼55 °F (31 °C) and ∼34 wt % poisons (S, P, Zn) were built up on the catalyst surface, both of which represent significant catalyst deactivation.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Catalyst used in the present study: (a) photos of the catalyst units and (b) dimensions of corrugated stainless steel layers where H = 1 mm and W = 2 mm. The locations where the sheets physically touch are the “base” areas where no catalyst material is deposited. Catalyst material is, thus, located in the open regions.

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Fig. 2

Catalyst surface analysis diagram. At left is the general surface analysis schematic going from actual catalyst sample to SEM image. At right are examples of the SEM/EDS results and how the catalyst phase and the base phase differ in their location and elemental makeup. The relative scales on the plots are representative of the two phases but meant for illustrative purposes only. Note the two phases correspond to the “valley” and “hill” areas of the corrugation: (i) the catalyst phase (Al–O–La) thick in low sections, site of poison deposition (P, Zn, and S), little to no steel base (Fe–Cr) evident, and (ii) base phase in high sections where sheet contacts adjacent sheet, catalyst layer thinned and steel support is evident, significant poison deposition not evident.

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Fig. 3

(a) Laboratory and (b) field engines

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Fig. 4

Schematic of laboratory slipstream. Note the catalyst was placed in the small catalyst housing for laboratory testing.

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Fig. 5

Schematic of field slipstream

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Fig. 6

Reduction efficiency of CO versus temperature

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Fig. 7

Reduction efficiency of ethylene versus temperature

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Fig. 8

Reduction efficiency of formaldehyde versus temperature

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Fig. 9

Reduction efficiency of VOC versus temperature

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Fig. 10

Catalyst light-off temperatures for exhaust emissions of primary interest

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Fig. 11

Catalyst surface poison buildup as a function of time. Units are wt % of surface material as determined via XPS: (a) individual traces of sulfur, phosphorus, and zinc and (b) accumulative poison level.

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Fig. 12

Poison deposition location. Images are of the leading edge of the test four catalyst sample.

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Fig. 13

Front (leading) versus back (trailing) surface buildup of catalyst poisons: (a) surface sulfur buildup, (b) surface phosphorus buildup, and (c) surface zinc buildup

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Fig. 14

Surface poison build-up as a function of PM passing over the catalyst

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