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Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Heat Transfer to Supercritical Water in Advanced Power Engineering Applications: An Industrial Scale Test Rig

[+] Author and Article Information
Gerrit A. Schatte

Institute for Energy Systems,
Technische Universität München,
Boltzmannstr. 15,
Garching 85748, Germany
e-mail: gerrit.schatte@tum.de

Andreas Kohlhepp, Tobias Gschnaidtner, Christoph Wieland

Institute for Energy Systems,
Technische Universität München,
Boltzmannstr. 15,
Garching 85748, Germany

Hartmut Spliethoff

Institute for Energy Systems,
Technische Universität München,
Boltzmannstr. 15,
Garching 85748, Germany;
Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research
(ZAE Bayern),
Walther-Meissner-Str. 6,
Garching 85748, Germany
e-mail: spliethoff@tum.de

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 8, 2017; final manuscript received March 12, 2018; published online March 29, 2018. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(6), 062002 (Mar 29, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1420; doi: 10.1115/1.4039610 History: Received August 08, 2017; Revised March 12, 2018

Heat transfer to supercritical water in heated tubes and channels is relevant for steam generators in conventional power plants and future concepts for supercritical nuclear and solar-thermal power plants. A new experimental facility, the high pressure evaporation rig, setup at the Institute for Energy Systems (Technische Universität München) aims to provide heat transfer data to fill the existing knowledge gaps at these conditions. The test rig consists of a closed-loop high pressure cycle, in which de-ionized water is fed to an instrumented test section heated by the application of direct electrical current. It is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of 380 bar at 580 °C in the test section. The maximum power rating of the system is 1 MW. The test section is a vertical tube (material: AISI A213/P91) with a 7000 mm heated length, a 15.7 mm internal diameter, and a wall thickness of 5.6 mm. It is equipped with 70 thermocouples distributed evenly along its length. It enables the determination of heat transfer coefficients in the supercritical region at various steady-state or transient conditions. In a first series of tests, experiments are conducted to investigate normal and deteriorated heat transfer (DHT) under vertical upward flow conditions. The newly generated data and literature data are used to evaluate different correlations available for modeling heat transfer coefficients at supercritical pressures.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Variation of dimensionless properties of water relevant for heat transfer as functions of temperature at 260 bar

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Fig. 2

The entire supercritical heat transfer database obtained from literature data for vertical tubes with upward flow (the dashed line indicates a value of 0.3)

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Fig. 3

Scatter plot of the Nusselt numbers calculated using the Chen and Fang correlation against the corresponding experimentally determined Nusselt numbers

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Fig. 4

Comparison of the various correlations for the DHT threshold heat flux density

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Fig. 5

A view of the test rig

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Fig. 6

Process flow diagram of the test rig

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Fig. 7

The cumulated supercritical heat transfer database

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Fig. 8

Series of test runs with increasing heat flux density

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Fig. 9

Scatter plot of the Nusselt numbers calculated using the Chen and Fang correlation against the corresponding experimentally determined Nusselt numbers

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