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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Combustion Mode Switching Characteristics of a Medium-Duty Engine Operated in Compression Ignition/PCCI Combustion Modes

[+] Author and Article Information
Akhilendra Pratap Singh

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India
e-mail: akhips@iitk.ac.in

Nikhil Bajpai

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India
e-mail: sujeet20186@gmail.com

Avinash Kumar Agarwal

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India
e-mail: akag@iitk.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received October 23, 2017; final manuscript received March 15, 2018; published online April 19, 2018. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(9), 092201 (Apr 19, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1586; doi: 10.1115/1.4039741 History: Received October 23, 2017; Revised March 15, 2018

Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion is a novel combustion concept, which reduces oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions simultaneously. However, PCCI combustion cannot be implemented in commercial engines due to its handicap in operating at high engine loads. This study is focused on the development of hybrid combustion engine in which engine can be operated in both combustion modes, namely, PCCI and compression ignition (CI). Up to medium loads, engine was operated in PCCI combustion and at higher loads, the engine control unit (ECU) automatically switched the engine operation to CI combustion mode. These combustion modes can be automatically switched by varying the fuel injection parameters and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) by an open ECU. The experiments were carried out at constant engine speed (1500 rpm) and the load was varied from idling to full load (5.5 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP)). To investigate the emission and particulate characteristics during different combustion modes and mode switching, continuous sampling of the exhaust gas was done for a 300 s cycle, which was specifically designed for this study. Results showed that PCCI combustion resulted in significantly lower NOx and PM emissions compared to the CI combustion. Lower exhaust gas temperature (EGT) in the PCCI combustion mode resulted in slightly inferior engine performance. Slightly higher concentration of unregulated emission species such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) in PCCI combustion mode was another important observation from this study. Lower concentration of aromatic compounds in PCCI combustion compared to CI combustion reflected relatively lower toxicity of the exhaust gas. Particulate number-size distribution showed that most particulates emitted in PCCI combustion mode were in the accumulation mode particle (AMP) size range, however, CI combustion emitted relatively smaller sized particles, which were more harmful to the human health. Overall, this study indicated that mode switching has significant potential for application of PCCI combustion mode in production grade engines for automotive sector, which would result in relatively cleaner engine exhaust compared to CI combustion mode engines.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the mode switching experimental setup: 1—test engine, 2—eddy current dynamometer, 3—dynamometer controller, 4—laminar flow element, 5—open ECU, 6—ECU interface system, 7—fuel tank, 8—fuel pump, 9—fuel rail, 10—EGR valve, 11—EGR loop, 12—thermodiluter, 13—engine exhaust particle sizer, 14—EEPS data logger, 15—FTIR emission analyzer, and 16—raw exhaust gas emission analyzer

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Fig. 2

Open ECU system configuration

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Fig. 3

Variation of fuel injection parameters and EGR rate during mode switching test-cycle

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Fig. 4

Variations in BTE and EGT with BMEP during different combustion modes and mode switching

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Fig. 5

Variations in CO and HC emissions with BMEP during different combustion modes and mode switching

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Fig. 6

Variations in TPN and NOx emissions with BMEP during different combustion modes and mode switching

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Fig. 7

Variations in particle number-size distributions with respect to time and BMEP for different combustion modes and mode switching

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Fig. 8

Variations in concentrations of nucleation mode and AMPs with BMEP during different combustion modes and mode switching

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Fig. 9

Variations in benzene and toluene with BMEP during different combustion modes and mode switching

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Fig. 10

Variations in HCHO and HCOOH with BMEP during different combustion modes and mode switching

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Fig. 11

Variations in SO2 and HNCO with BMEP during different combustion modes and mode switching

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