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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Evaluation of Fuel Injection Strategies for Biodiesel-Fueled CRDI Engine Development and Particulate Studies

[+] Author and Article Information
Akhilendra Pratap Singh

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India

Avinash Kumar Agarwal

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India
e-mail: akag@iitk.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 12, 2018; final manuscript received March 15, 2018; published online May 8, 2018. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(10), 102201 (May 08, 2018) (17 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1040; doi: 10.1115/1.4039745 History: Received January 12, 2018; Revised March 15, 2018

Fuel injection parameters such as fuel injection pressure (FIP) and start of main injection (SoMI) timings significantly affect the performance and emission characteristics of a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine. In this study, a state-of-the-art single cylinder research engine was used to investigate the effects of fuel injection parameters on combustion, performance, emission characteristics, and particulates and their morphology. The experiments were carried out at three FIPs (400, 700, and 1000 bar) and four SoMI timings (4 deg, 6 deg, 8 deg, and 10 deg bTDC) for biodiesel blends [B20 (20% v/v biodiesel and 80% v/v diesel) and B40 (40% v/v biodiesel and 60% v/v diesel)] compared to baseline mineral diesel. The experiments were performed at a constant engine speed (1500 rpm), without pilot injection and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The experimental results showed that FIP and SoMI timings affected the in-cylinder pressure and the heat release rate (HRR), significantly. At higher FIPs, the biodiesel blends resulted in slightly higher rate of pressure rise (RoPR) and combustion noise compared to baseline mineral diesel. All the test fuels showed relatively shorter combustion duration at higher FIPs and advanced SoMI timings. The biodiesel blends showed slightly higher NOx and smoke opacity compared to baseline mineral diesel. Lower particulate number concentration at higher FIPs was observed for all the test fuels. However, biodiesel blends showed emission of relatively higher number of particulates compared to baseline mineral diesel. Significantly lower trace metals in the particulates emitted from biodiesel blend fueled engine was an important finding of this study. The particulate morphology showed relatively smaller number of primary particles in particulate clusters from biodiesel exhaust, which resulted in relatively lower toxicity, rendering biodiesel to be more environmentally benign.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup: 1—single cylinder research engine, 2—transient dynamometer, 3—dynamometer controller, 4—coolant conditioning system, 5—lubricating oil conditioning system, 6—Piezoelectric pressure transducer, 7—inlet air surge tank, 8—air-flow rate measurement system, 9—combustion data acquisition system, 10—ECU interface computer, 11—fuel tank, 12—fuel measurement system, 13—fuel conditioning system, 14—high pressure fuel pump, 15—common rail, 16—intake air, 17—smoke opacimeter, 18—exhaust gas emission analyzer, 19—thermo-diluter, 20—engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS), 21—EEPS computer, and 22—partial flow dilution tunnel

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Fig. 2

In-cylinder pressure variations of CI combustion fueled by mineral diesel, B20, and B40 at different FIPs and SoMI timings

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Fig. 3

HRR variations in CI combustion fueled by mineral diesel, B20, and B40 at different FIPs and SoMI timings

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Fig. 4

Rmax, KI, KP, and combustion noise variations of CI combustion fueled by mineral diesel, B20, and B40 at varying FIPs and SoMI timings

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Fig. 5

SoC, combustion phasing and combustion duration in a CI engine fueled by mineral diesel, B20, and B40 at varying FIPs and SoMI timings

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Fig. 6

BTE, BSFC, and EGT of mineral diesel-, B20-, and B40-fueled CI engine at varying FIPs and SoMI timings

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Fig. 7

Brake-specific HC, CO, NOx emissions, and smoke opacity for mineral diesel-, B20-, and B40-fueled CI engine at varying FIPs and SoMI timings

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Fig. 8

Number-size distribution of particulates emitted by mineral diesel-, B20-, and B40-fueled CI engine at varying FIPs and SoMI timings

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Fig. 9

Surface area-size distribution of particulates emitted by mineral diesel-, B20-, and B40-fueled CI engine at varying FIPs and SoMI timings

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Fig. 10

NMPs, AMPs, TPN concentrations, and CMD of particulates emitted by mineral diesel-, B20-, and B40-fueled CI engine at varying FIPs and SoMI timings

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Fig. 11

Particulates-bound trace metals emitted by CI combustion using mineral diesel and B20 at constant FIP and SoMI timing

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Fig. 12

Morphology of particulates emitted by CI combustion using mineral diesel and B20 at constant FIP and SoMI timing

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Fig. 13

Particulate mass and NOx emissions from mineral diesel-, B20-, and B40-fueled CI engine at varying FIPs and SoMI timings

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