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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

The Experimental Analysis of the Role of Flue Gas Injection for Horizontal Well Steam Flooding

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhanxi Pang

State Key Laboratory of Petroleum
Resources and Prospecting,
The Faculty of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mails: pxiad9827@163.com;
pxiad9827@cup.edu.cn

Peng Qi

MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering,
The Faculty of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: Petroleum2013@163.com

Fengyi Zhang

Tianjin Bohai Oilfield Institute,
CNOOC Ltd.,
Tianjin 300452, China
e-mail: pxhe5211@163.com

Taotao Ge

Tianjin Bohai Oilfield Institute,
CNOOC Ltd.,
Tianjin 300452, China,
e-mail: 474498189@qq.com

Huiqing Liu

State Key Laboratory of Petroleum
Resources and Prospecting,
The Faculty of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: Liu.HQ19660327@hotmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 10, 2016; final manuscript received March 22, 2018; published online May 15, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Mohamed A. Habib.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(10), 102902 (May 15, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1335; doi: 10.1115/1.4039870 History: Received August 10, 2016; Revised March 22, 2018

Heavy oil is an important hydrocarbon resource that plays a great role in petroleum supply for the world. Co-injection of steam and flue gas can be used to develop deep heavy oil reservoirs. In this paper, a series of gas dissolution experiments were implemented to analyze the properties variation of heavy oil. Then, sand-pack flooding experiments were carried out to optimize injection temperature and injection volume of this mixture. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) flooding experiments were completed to analyze the sweep efficiency and the oil recovery factor of flue gas + steam flooding. The role in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) mechanisms was summarized according to the experimental results. The results show that the dissolution of flue gas in heavy oil can largely reduce oil viscosity and its displacement efficiency is obviously higher than conventional steam injection. Flue gas gradually gathers at the top to displace remaining oil and to decrease heat loss of the reservoir top. The ultimate recovery is 49.49% that is 7.95% higher than steam flooding.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The schematic of gas dissolution experiment

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Fig. 2

The schematic of the 1D flooding experiment

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Fig. 3

The schematic of the 3D flooding experiment

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Fig. 4

The structure of the 3D model and the locations of production well and injection well

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Fig. 5

The viscosity–temperature relationships of degassed oil

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Fig. 6

The materials used to fill oil layer, the cap, and bottom layer: (a) quartz sand and (b) compacted clay

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Fig. 7

The properties variation of heavy oil after dissolving flue gas: (a) solubility of flue gas, (b) volume expansion coefficient of heavy oil, (c) viscosity of heavy oil, and (d) the percentage of viscosity reduction

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Fig. 8

The displacement effects under different temperature conditions: (a) displacement efficiency and (b) residual oil saturation

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Fig. 9

The influence of injection volume on displacement effect

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Fig. 10

The experimental results of production performance during the 3D flooding experiment: Steam flooding: ① the ascent stage, ② The stable stage, and ③ the descent stage. Flue gas + steam flooding: ④ the expansion of thermal front, ⑤ the promotion of override, and ⑥ the occurrence of channeling.

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Fig. 11

The temperature distribution during the three stages of steam flooding: (a) the ascent stage, (b) the stable stage, and (c) the descent stage

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Fig. 12

The temperature distribution during the different stages of flue gas + steam flooding: (a) the expansion of thermal front, (b) the promotion of fluid override, and (c) the occurrence of fluid channeling

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Fig. 13

The appearance photographs of crude oil during different stages: (a) degassed oil, (b) after steam flooding, and (c) after flue gas injection

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Fig. 14

The distribution of remaining oil in the 3D model after flue gas + steam flooding: (a) the top layer, (b) open the second layer, (c) open the third layer, and (d) the bottom layer

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