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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Slow Pyrolysis of the Sewage Sludge With Additives: Calcium Oxide and Lignite

[+] Author and Article Information
Halina Pawlak-Kruczek

Department of Boilers,
Combustion and Energy Processes,
Faculty of Mechanical and
Power Engineering,
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology,
27 Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego,
Wroclaw 50-370, Poland
e-mail: halina.pawlak@pwr.edu.pl

Krystian Krochmalny

Department of Boilers,
Combustion and Energy Processes,
Faculty of Mechanical and
Power Engineering,
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology,
27 Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego,
Wroclaw 50-370, Poland
e-mail: krystian.krochmalny@pwr.edu.pl

Mateusz Wnukowski

Department of Boilers,
Combustion and Energy Processes,
Faculty of Mechanical and
Power Engineering,
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology,
27 Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego,
Wroclaw 50-370, Poland
e-mail: mateusz.wnukowski@pwr.edu.pl

Lukasz Niedzwiecki

Department of Boilers,
Combustion and Energy Processes,
Faculty of Mechanical and
Power Engineering,
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology,
27 Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego,
Wroclaw 50-370, Poland
e-mail: lukasz.niedzwiecki@pwr.edu.pl

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 14, 2017; final manuscript received March 31, 2018; published online April 19, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Ronald Breault.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(6), 062206 (Apr 19, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1432; doi: 10.1115/1.4039906 History: Received August 14, 2017; Revised March 31, 2018

Sewage sludge is a waste from the water treatment installations. It is used in agriculture. However, due to various environmental restrictions, not all of the sewage sludge can be utilized within that sector. Using this resource as a sustainable energy source might be an interesting alternative to the landfilling. Some of the fuel-related properties of sewage sludge make it difficult to be used as a fuel without preprocessing. Torrefaction is a promising pretreatment technique that could prove itself suitable to be used for improving sewage sludge. Additives might be used for obtaining some further improvements, either during the torrefaction stage or further at the final energy conversion stage (combustion, gasification, etc.). This paper presents the results of torrefaction experiments performed with sewage sludge from the local water treatment facility. Torrefaction was performed with laboratory-scale rotary reactor at three different temperatures (250 °C, 275 °C, and 300 °C). Cotorrefaction of sewage sludge with lignite was also performed. Torrefaction tests with quicklime (CaO) as an additive were also performed. Fuel-related properties of products of torrefaction and feedstock were determined. By-product of torrefaction, called torgas, was also a subject of the analysis. Propensity of the torrefied product to absorb moisture was assessed. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of raw and torrefied samples was performed in order to compare the behavior of raw and torrefied materials during subsequent pyrolysis.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Isothermal rotary reactor setup—diagram (left) and picture (right)

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Fig. 2

Measured concentration of the ammonia during mixing trials

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Fig. 3

Mass yield (Ym), energy yield (Ye), and energy densification ratio for cotorrefaction trials of sewage sludge with lignite

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Fig. 4

Proximate analysis of feedstocks and products

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Fig. 5

Higher heating values and moisture content of feedstocks and products

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Fig. 6

Proximate analysis of feedstocks and products

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Fig. 7

Noncondensable trace compounds present in torgas during torrefaction trials at 300 °C

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Fig. 8

Condensable compounds present in torgas—comparison of GC-MS analysis for sewage sludge torrefaction at 275 °C (red/upper line) and 300 °C (blue/lower line)

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Fig. 9

Condensable compounds present in torgas—comparison of GC-MS analysis for sewage sludge torrefaction at 300 °C with and without the addition of CaO

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Fig. 10

Propensity of moisture absorption for sewage sludge torrefied in different temperatures

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Fig. 11

Differential thermogravimetry (%/min) curves for raw and torrefied (in temperature 250, 275, and 300 °C, respectively) sewage sludge pyrolysis in nitrogen

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Fig. 12

Differential thermogravimetry curves for raw sewage sludge with different ratio of CaO (by mass)

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Fig. 13

Differential thermogravimetry curves for torrefied sewage sludge with different ratio of CaO (by mass, added before torrefaction)

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