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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

A Computational Investigation of Fuel Chemical and Physical Properties Effects on Gasoline Compression Ignition in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Yu Zhang

Aramco Services Company,
Aramco Research Center, Detroit,
46535 Peary Ct.,
Novi, MI 48377
e-mail: yu.zhang@aramcoservices.com

Alexander Voice

Aramco Services Company,
Aramco Research Center, Detroit,
46535 Peary Ct.,
Novi, MI 48377
e-mail: alexander.voice@aramcoservices.com

Yuanjiang Pei

Aramco Services Company,
Aramco Research Center, Detroit,
46535 Peary Ct.,
Novi, MI 48377
e-mail: yuanjiang.pei@Aramcoservices.com

Michael Traver

Aramco Services Company,
Aramco Research Center, Detroit,
46535 Peary Ct.,
Novi, MI 48377
e-mail: michael.traver@aramcoservices.com

David Cleary

Aramco Services Company,
Aramco Research Center, Detroit,
46535 Peary Ct.,
Novi, MI 48377
e-mail: david.cleary@aramcoservices.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received March 2, 2018; final manuscript received March 3, 2018; published online May 8, 2018. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(10), 102202 (May 08, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1169; doi: 10.1115/1.4040010 History: Received March 02, 2018; Revised March 03, 2018

Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) offers the potential to reduce criteria pollutants while achieving high fuel efficiency. This study aims to investigate the fuel chemical and physical properties effects on GCI operation in a heavy-duty diesel engine through closed-cycle, three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) combustion simulations, investigating both mixing-controlled combustion (MCC) at 18.9 compression ratio (CR) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) at 17.3 CR. For this work, fuel chemical properties were studied in terms of the primary reference fuel (PRF) number (0–91) and the octane sensitivity (0–6) while using a fixed fuel physical surrogate. For the fuel physical properties effects investigation, six physical properties were individually perturbed, varying from the gasoline to the diesel range. Combustion simulations were carried out at 1375 RPM and 10 bar brake specific mean pressure (BMEP). Reducing fuel reactivity was found to influence ignition delay time (IDT) more significantly for PPC than for MCC. 0D IDT calculations suggested that the fuel reactivity impact on IDT diminished with an increase in temperature. Moreover, higher reactivity gasolines exhibited stronger negative coefficient (NTC) behavior and their IDTs showed less sensitivity to temperature change. In addition, increasing octane sensitivity was observed to result in higher fuel reactivity and shorter IDT. Under both MCC and PPC, all six physical properties showed little impact on global combustion behavior, NOx, and fuel efficiency. Among the physical properties investigated, only density showed a notable effect on soot emissions. Increasing density led to higher soot due to deteriorated air entrainment into the spray and the slower fuel-air mixing process.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Perturbation of gasoline viscosity and vapor pressure

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Fig. 3

Comparison of cylinder pressure and apparent heat release rate (AHRR) between model predictions and experimental data

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Fig. 4

Comparison of NOx and soot emissions between model predictions and experimental data

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Fig. 2

Comparison of distillation curve between measurement and model prediction

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Fig. 5

Cylinder pressure and AHRR for PRF blends under MCC operation

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Fig. 6

Cylinder pressure and AHRR for PRF blends under PPC operation

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Fig. 7

Key injection and combustion parameters for PRF blends under MCC and PPC operation

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Fig. 8

Key engine performance results for PRF blends under MCC and PPC operation

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Fig. 16

Impact of density perturbation on in-cylinder soot evolution at TSOI of 913 K

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Fig. 17

Impact of density perturbation on in-cylinder air utilization at TSOI of 913 K

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Fig. 14

Key performance result from the perturbation of fuel physical properties under MCC mode

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Fig. 15

Key performance results from the perturbation of fuel physical properties under PPC mode

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Fig. 9

IDTs for PRF blends at an initial pressure of 90 bar, Phi of 2, and O2 molar concentration of 17%

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Fig. 10

IDT difference between RON91 and RON58 at different EGR dilution levels

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Fig. 11

In-cylinder Phi-T distribution at SOC for PRF blends under PPC operation

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Fig. 12

Cylinder pressure and AHRR for two RON80 fuels with different octane sensitivities

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Fig. 13

Zero-dimensional IDTs for the two RON80 fuels with different octane sensitivities

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Fig. 18

Impact of density perturbation on cylinder pressure and AHRR at TSOI of 810 K

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Fig. 19

IDT contour and Phi-T distribution of for the baseline and higher density fuels under PPC mode with TSOI of 810 K

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