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Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

Theoretical Performance Limits of an Isobaric Hybrid Compressed Air Energy Storage System

[+] Author and Article Information
Sammy Houssainy

National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
15013 Denver West Parkway
Golden, CO 80401
e-mail: Sammy.Houssainy@NREL.gov

Mohammad Janbozorgi

Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering Department,
46-147A Engineering IV,
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597
e-mail: mjanbozorgi@gmail.com

Pirouz Kavehpour

Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering Department,
46-147A Engineering IV,
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597
e-mail: pirouz@seas.ucla.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 27, 2018; final manuscript received April 14, 2018; published online May 15, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Esmail M. A. Mokheimer.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(10), 101201 (May 15, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1081; doi: 10.1115/1.4040060 History: Received January 27, 2018; Revised April 14, 2018

The desire to increase power production through renewable sources introduces a number of problems due to their inherent intermittency. One solution is to incorporate energy storage systems as a means of managing the intermittent energy and increasing the utilization of renewable sources. A novel hybrid thermal and compressed air energy storage (HT-CAES) system is presented which mitigates the shortcomings of the otherwise attractive conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems and its derivatives, such as strict geological locations, low energy density, and the production of greenhouse gas emissions. The HT-CAES system is investigated, and the thermodynamic efficiency limits within which it operates have been drawn. The thermodynamic models considered assume a constant pressure cavern. It is shown that under this assumption the cavern acts just as a delay time in the operation of the plant, whereas an adiabatic constant volume cavern changes the quality of energy through the cavern. The efficiency of the HT-CAES system is compared with its Brayton cycle counterpart, in the case of pure thermal energy storage (TES). It is shown that the efficiency of the HT-CAES plant is generally not bound by the Carnot efficiency and always higher than that of the Brayton cycle, except for when the heat losses following compression rise above a critical level. The results of this paper demonstrate that the HT-CAES system has the potential of increasing the efficiency of a pure TES system executed through a Brayton cycle at the expense of an air storage medium.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Hybrid thermal and compressed air energy storage configuration (with regeneration), the compressor and turbine are decoupled, (b) Brayton cycle with regeneration (turbine and compressor are along the same shaft; the compressor is powered by the turbine), (c) the temperature-entropy (T-s) diagram of the Brayton cycle and HT-CAES system with regeneration. The conditions of the isobaric and adiabatic cavern remain constant and are represented by point 2 in the diagram.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Efficiency of an HT-CAES system and a Brayton cycle with regeneration versus thermal storage temperatures (compression ratio of 20 in both cycles)

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Fig. 3

The ratio of efficiency (HT-CAES/Brayton) of both systems with regeneration as a function of the temperature ratio (T4/T1) and pressure ratio (P2/P1)

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Fig. 4

(a) Hybrid thermal and compressed air energy storage configuration without regeneration, (b) Brayton cycle without regeneration, and (c) the T-s diagram of the HT-CAES system without regeneration. The conditions of the isobaric and adiabatic cavern remain constant and are represented by point 2 in the diagram.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Efficiency versus thermal storage temperatures of the simplified hybrid CAES cycle given by Eq. (17), exclusive of regeneration (b) The T-s diagram of the HT-CAES system without TES heat addition. The conditions of the isobaric and adiabatic cavern remain constant and are represented by point 2 in the diagram.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Hybrid thermal and compressed air energy storage with a heat loss component following compression and (b) the T-s diagram of the HT-CAES system with heat losses following compression. The conditions of the isobaric and adiabatic cavern remain constant and are represented by point 3 in the diagram.

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Fig. 7

A plot of the round-trip efficiency (corresponding to the hybrid CAES cycle of Fig. 6, exclusive of regeneration) versus the turbine inlet temperature (or equivalently TES temperature) given by Eq. (14) for various T3 temperatures (corresponding to various heat loss curves following compression) for a compression ratio of 20, a heat capacity ratio of 1.4, and an ambient temperature of 300 K. In addition, the Carnot efficiency is added to the plot for comparison.

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Fig. 8

A plot of the Carnot efficiency, Brayton cycle efficiency, and hybrid CAES system efficiency as a function of the TES temperature, or the turbine inlet temperature (assuming a compression ratio of 10 in both Brayton and hybrid CAES cycles)

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Fig. 9

The temperature and pressure of an adiabatic cavern cyclic process. The first six cycles of the charge and discharge processes are shown.

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