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Research Papers: Oil/Gas Reservoirs

Geopolymers as an Alternative for Oil Well Cementing Applications: A Review of Advantages and Concerns

[+] Author and Article Information
Mahmoud Khalifeh

Department of Energy and
Petroleum Engineering,
University of Stavanger,
Stavanger 4036, Norway
e-mail: Mahmoud.khalifeh@uis.no

Arild Saasen

Department of Energy and
Petroleum Engineering,
University of Stavanger,
Stavanger 4036, Norway
e-mail: Arild.saasen@uis.no

Helge Hodne

Department of Energy and
Petroleum Engineering,
University of Stavanger,
Stavanger 4036, Norway
e-mail: Helge.hodne@uis.no

Rune Godøy

R&D Department,
Statoil,
Stavanger 4036, Norway
e-mail: Rugo@statoil.com

Torbjørn Vrålstad

SINTEF Petroleum,
SINTEF Industry,
Trondheim 4036, Norway
e-mail: Torbjorn.vralstad@sintef.no

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received October 17, 2017; final manuscript received May 1, 2018; published online May 29, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Daoyong (Tony) Yang.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(9), 092801 (May 29, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1570; doi: 10.1115/1.4040192 History: Received October 17, 2017; Revised May 01, 2018

Geopolymers, being inorganic polymers created from rock sources, were evaluated as an alternative to Portland cement. To evaluate their usability, some properties of a selected geopolymer were measured and compared with those from a neat class G Portland cement. The geopolymeric slurries showed a non-Newtonian viscosity behavior with a measurable, albeit low, yield stress. The pumpability measurements using atmospheric and pressurized consistometer showed an adequate set profile for both the geopolymer and cement sample. Static fluid loss test shows that the geopolymeric slurries experienced a lower fluid loss compared to that of the Portland cement. The shrinkage factor for the geopolymers was reduced (expanded) as the downhole temperature was ramped up. The shrinkage of the Portland cement sample proceeded only with a lower rate. Tensile strength of the geopolymers was approximately 5% of their compressive strength; however, this value for Portland cement was approximately 10% of its compressive strength. Finally, shear bond strength of geopolymers would benefit from improvement.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Shear bond strength between pipe and cementitious material

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Fig. 1

Schematic view of the shrinkage measurement setup

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Fig. 6

Atmospheric consistometer: effect of retarder on the pumpability of the geopolymers

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Fig. 3

Shear stress versus shear rate of neat G-cement and the geopolymeric slurries

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Fig. 4

Atmospheric consistometer: consistency values of the slurry samples

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Fig. 5

Pressurized consistometer: consistency values of the slurry samples at 2000 psi

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Fig. 11

Shrinkage factor of the neat G-cement and temperature over time

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Fig. 12

Shrinkage factor of the Neat G-cement, as a function of temperature change

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Fig. 13

Shrinkage factor of the geopolymer (mix design 3) and temperature over time

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Fig. 7

Static fluid loss testing at ambient temperature

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Fig. 8

Ultrasonic cement analyzer: effect of temperature variation on the sonic strength of the neat G-cement, curing pressure 2000 psi

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Fig. 9

Ultrasonic cement analyzer: effect of temperature variation on the sonic strength of the geopolymer, curing pressure 2000 psi

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Fig. 10

Uniaxial compressive strength of the geopolymers and the neat G-cement, cured at 70 °C and 2000 psi

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Fig. 14

Shrinkage factor of the geopolymer, Mix design 3, as a function of temperature change

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