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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Experimental Investigation of Amine-Surfactant CO2 Foam Stability Enhanced by Silica Nanoparticles

[+] Author and Article Information
Liang Zhang

School of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao 266580, China
e-mail: zhlupc@upc.edu.cn

Jun Kang, Panfeng Zhang, Shaoran Ren, Xinyang Guo

School of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao 266580, China

Yin Zhang

Petroleum Engineering,
College of Engineering and Mines,
University of Alaska Fairbanks,
Fairbanks, AK 99775
e-mail: yzhang35@alaska.edu

Santanu Khataniar

Petroleum Engineering,
College of Engineering and Mines,
University of Alaska Fairbanks,
Fairbanks, AK 99775

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received December 6, 2017; final manuscript received May 3, 2018; published online June 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Daoyong (Tony) Yang.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(11), 112902 (Jun 12, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1688; doi: 10.1115/1.4040205 History: Received December 06, 2017; Revised May 03, 2018

The CO2 foam generated by the conventional surfactants usually does not show long-term stability due to the substantial solubility and diffusivity of CO2 in water. Silica nanoparticles with different wettability and high adsorption energy on the gas–water interface can be used as a stabilizer to enhance the stability of the CO2 foam. In this study, nine kinds of nonionic amine surfactants were employed to generate the CO2 foam, while three kinds of silica nanoparticles were selected and added to improve the CO2 foam stability. The influences of various factors, including pressure, temperature, pH, surfactant, and nanoparticle, on the CO2 foam stability have been investigated. The experimental results show that without nanoparticles, the CO2 foam stability decreases with the increase of the number of EO groups in the ethoxylated amine surfactant, especially under high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) conditions. In general, the nanoparticles with a low concentration (<0.5 wt %) have little influence on the CO2 foam stability, but when the concentration of nanoparticle is enhanced high enough (1.0 wt %), the CO2 foam stability can be improved significantly. In particular, by adding 1.0 wt % nanoparticle of QS-150 to 0.5 wt % surfactant of C18N(EO)2/10, the CO2 foam stability has been increased 5–6 times, while the volume of generated CO2 foam has been increased by 17–31%. Therefore, in this study, the synergetic mechanisms between the amine surfactants and the silica nanoparticles to generate and stabilize CO2 foam have been identified.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) LPLT tester and (b) HTHP tester

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Fig. 2

Comparison of CO2 foam stability of different surfactants at 1 atm and 40 °C

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Fig. 3

Comparison of CO2 foam stabilized by surfactants and nanoparticles at 40 °C and 1 atm

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the interaction between nanoparticle and surfactant [24]

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Fig. 5

Effect of surfactant and nanoparticle concentrations on CO2 foam stability

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Fig. 6

Synergetic interaction between surfactant and nanoparticle on CO2 foam stability

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Fig. 7

CO2 foam stabilized by different surfactants at 10 MPa pressure and different temperatures (0.5 wt % surfactant)

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Fig. 8

CO2 foam stabilized by surfactant and nanoparticle at 10 MPa and different temperatures (0.5 wt % surfactant and 1 wt% QS-150 nanoparticle)

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