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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Shock Tube Demonstration of Acousto-Optically Modulated Quantum Cascade Laser as a Broadband, Time-Resolved Combustion Diagnostic

[+] Author and Article Information
Zachary E. Loparo

Center for Advanced Turbomachinery
and Energy Research (CATER),
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816

Andrey V. Muraviev

Department of Physics,
CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics,
Nano Science Technology Center (NSTC),
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816;
Truventic LLC,
Orlando, FL 32805

Pedro Figueiredo

Department of Physics,
Nano Science Technology Center (NSTC),
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816

Arkadiy Lyakh

Department of Physics,
CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics,
Nano Science Technology Center (NSTC),
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816

Robert E. Peale

Department of Physics,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816;
Truventic LLC,
Orlando, FL 32805

Kareem Ahmed, Subith S. Vasu

Center for Advanced Turbomachinery and Energy
Research (CATER),
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 10, 2018; final manuscript received May 13, 2018; published online June 12, 2018. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(11), 112202 (Jun 12, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1330; doi: 10.1115/1.4040381 History: Received May 10, 2018; Revised May 13, 2018

We provide the first demonstration of an acousto-optically modulated quantum cascade laser (AOM QCL) system as a diagnostic for combustion by measuring nitric oxide (NO), a highly regulated emission produced in gas turbines. The system provides time-resolved broadband spectral measurements of the present gas species via a single line of sight measurement, offering advantages over widely used narrowband absorption spectroscopy (e.g., the potential for simultaneous multispecies measurements using a single laser) and considerably faster (>15 kHz rates and potentially up to MHz) than sampling techniques, which employ fourier transform infrared (FTIR) or GC/MS. The developed AOM QCL system yields fast tunable output covering a spectral range of 1725–1930 cm−1 with a linewidth of 10–15 cm−1. For the demonstration experiment, the AOM QCL system has been used to obtain time-resolved spectral measurements of NO formation during the shock heating of mixture of a 10% nitrous oxide (N2O) in a balance of argon over a temperature range of 1245–2517 K and a pressure range of 3.6–5.8 atm. Results were in good agreement with chemical kinetic simulations. The system shows revolutionary promise for making simultaneous time-resolved measurements of multiple species concentrations and temperature with a single line of sight measurement.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of AOM QCL system (Adapted from [1719])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2:

Output intensity and measured spectra of different laser output lines for the AOM QCL system. The thick black line gives integrated intensity for each (colored) emission spectrum obtained by a different AOM modulation frequency.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of the optical setup of the AOM QCL system and the shock tube test section. (ND = neutral density, BP = bandpass).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Example traces of RF generator control voltage, corresponding to AOM driving frequency, and pulsed QCL output intensity for the transmitted signal of the shock tube experiment before the arrival of the incident shock wave

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Pressure and NO mole fraction transients for T5 = 2080 K, P5 = 4.2 atm shock experiment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Sample consecutive difference spectra of the transmitted and reference beams before arrival of the shock (a) and after the reflected shock wave (b). There is a clear change due to absorption from the NO formed.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Theoretical NO absorption spectrum at T = 2080 K, P = 4.2 atm, as observed with a 15 cm−1 linewidth Gaussian instrument function spectrometer (red) and averaged observed absorbance spectra over course of test time (black)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

((a)–(c)): Absorption cross section of NO convoluted with a 15 cm−1 Gaussian instrument function at (a) T = 1245 K, (b) T = 1684 K, and (c) T = 2517 K obtained from HITRAN [25]. ((d)–(f)): Average measured absorbance spectra (normalized to peak value) over the course of the test time for experiments with corresponding temperatures.

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