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Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Active Phase Change Material Cold Storage in Off-Grid Telecommunication Base Stations: Potential Assessment of Primary Energy Savings

[+] Author and Article Information
Alexander Studniorz

Department of Energy Engineering
and Environmental Protection,
Institute for Energy Engineering,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Berlin 10587, Germany
e-mail: alex.studniorz@tu-berlin.de

Daniel Wolf

Department of Energy Engineering
and Environmental Protection,
Institute for Energy Engineering,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Berlin 10587, Germany;
HPS Home Power Solutions GmbH,
Berlin 12489, Germany
e-mail: daniel.wolf@homepowersolutions.com

Andreas Christidis

Department of Energy Engineering
and Environmental Protection,
Institute for Energy Engineering,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Berlin 10587, Germany
e-mail: christidis@iet.tu-berlin.de

George Tsatsaronis

Department of Energy Engineering
and Environmental Protection,
Institute for Energy Engineering,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Berlin 10587, Germany
e-mail: tsatsaronis@iet.tu-berlin.de

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 27, 2017; final manuscript received May 25, 2018; published online July 23, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Tatiana Morosuk.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(11), 112007 (Jul 23, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1040; doi: 10.1115/1.4040527 History: Received January 27, 2017; Revised May 25, 2018

The global demand for wireless, mobile communication, and data services has grown significantly in the recent years. Consequently, electrical energy consumption to provide these services has increased. The principal contributors to this electricity demand are approximately 7 million telecommunication base stations (TBS) worldwide. They act as access points for mobile networks and have typical electrical loads of 2–3 kW. Whereas for most of the TBS, the electricity is supplied by the grid, approximately 15% are located in remote areas or regions with poor grid accessibility, where diesel generators (DG) supply the required electricity. Based on a dynamic simulation model the application of a latent heat storage (LHS) using phase change material (PCM) in existing off-grid TBS has been analyzed. The LHS unit has been modeled as an air-based storage with phase change temperatures between 20 °C and 30 °C with the PCM being macro-encapsulated in slabs. This paper demonstrates the potential to reduce the primary energy consumption in off-grid TBS through the following methods: optimization of the DG operating point, of the air conditioning unit operation schedule and the utilization of photovoltaic (PV) energy.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Power mark-ups for sizing DG used in off-grid TBS and (b) efficiency curve of a DG [4]

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Fig. 2

Standard TBS energy supply system and possible extensions

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Fig. 3

(a) Solidifying the PCM by an airflow through the ACU and the fan and (b) melting the PCM by an airflow through the fan only

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Fig. 4

(a) Heat transfer involving two fluids in top part; one fluid and PCM in bottom part and (b) air flow gap, heat transfer surface, and orientation of slabs containing the PCM

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Fig. 5

(a) Hybrid system and (b) hybrid system with LHS using the improvement in the DG efficiency

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Fig. 6

Fuel savings for efficiency improvements at different LHS capacities

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Fig. 7

(a) Hybrid system and (b) hybrid system with LHS using the ACU efficiency improvement

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Fig. 8

(a) PV-hybrid system and (b) PV-hybrid system with LHS using PV-excess energy

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