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research-article

A thermo-economic and emissions analysis of different sanitary-water heating units embedded within 4th-generation district-heating systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Primoz Poredos

Laboratory for refrigeration and district energy, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of mechanical engineering, Slovenia
primoz.poredos@fs.uni-lj.si

Boris Vidrih

Laboratory for refrigeration and district energy, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of mechanical engineering, Slovenia
boris.vidrih@fs.uni-lj.si

Andrej Kitanovski

Laboratory for refrigeration and district energy, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of mechanical engineering, Slovenia
andrej.kitanovski@fs.uni-lj.si

Alojz Poredos

Laboratory for refrigeration and district energy, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of mechanical engineering, Slovenia
alojz.poredos@fs.uni-lj.si

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4040102 History: Received January 31, 2018; Revised April 23, 2018

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a thermo-economic, primary-energy-factor and CO2-equivalent (CO2 (eq)), emissions-sensitivity analysis for the preparation of sanitary hot water (SHW) in 4th-generation district-heating systems. The annual required additional heat for the SHW provided by a local heating unit, based on an air-to-water heat pump, a natural-gas boiler and an electrical resistance heater, was determined using a TRNSYS simulation. Additionally, the seasonal performance factor of the heat pump under consideration was determined. The study considered three possible supply temperatures, i.e., 35, 40 and 45 °C. The results show that a local heating unit based on an air-to-water heat pump is the most efficient in terms of the consumed primary energy and CO2 (eq) emissions. This unit is also the second best in terms of thermo-economic performance. The unit based on a natural-gas boiler is much more appropriate than an electrical resistance heater unit in terms of both the primary energy factor and the CO2 (eq) emission factors for an electricity generation mix that has values higher than the average for the EU-28. The heat generated by this natural-gas unit is also cheaper than the heat produced by an electrical resistance heater based on the average price for electricity in the EU-28.

Copyright (c) 2018 by ASME
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