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Review Article

Review of Experimental and Computational Studies on Spray, Combustion, Performance, and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel Fueled Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Avinash Kumar Agarwal

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India
e-mail: akag@iitk.ac.in

Sungwook Park, Chang Sik Lee

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Hanyang University,
222, Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu,
Seoul 04763, South Korea

Atul Dhar

School of Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Mandi,
Mandi 175005, India

Suhan Park

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Chonnam National University,
77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu,
Gwangju 61186, South Korea

Tarun Gupta, Neeraj K. Gupta

Department of Civil Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 8, 2018; final manuscript received June 9, 2018; published online August 30, 2018. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(12), 120801 (Aug 30, 2018) (30 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1257; doi: 10.1115/1.4040584 History: Received April 08, 2018; Revised June 09, 2018

Biodiesel has emerged as a suitable alternative to mineral diesel in compression ignition (CI) engines in order to ensure global energy security and to reduce engine out emissions in near future. Biodiesel derived from various feedstocks available worldwide fits well in the current fuel supply arrangement for transport sector. However, biodiesel as an alternative transportation fuel has been extensively investigated because of differences in its important fuel properties compared with baseline mineral diesel. Since fuel properties greatly influence spray development, combustion, and emission formation in internal combustion (IC) engines, a number of experimental and computational studies on biodiesel usage in CI engines have been performed to determine its brake thermal efficiency (BTE), gaseous emissions, durability, etc., by various researchers using variety of engines and feedstocks. In the present paper, a critical review of the effect of biodiesel's fuel properties on engine performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics in existing diesel engines vis-a-vis conventional diesel has been undertaken. In addition, the progress and advances of numerical modeling involving biodiesel are also reviewed to determine the effect of fuel properties on spray evolution and development of reaction mechanisms for biodiesel combustion simulations. Fuel properties are discussed in two categories: physical and chemical properties, which are key parameters affecting spray and combustion processes. Subsequent sections review spray, combustion, emissions, and performance characteristics of biodiesels under various engine operation conditions. In the last section of this review paper, numerical modeling of biodiesel covering recent numerical models and schemes to understand the behavior of biodiesel combustion and pollutants formation is included. This review paper comprehensively summarizes biodiesel fuel's (BDFs) spray, combustion, and emission characteristics using experimental and numerical approaches. Limitations and scope for future studies are discussed in each section.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Relationship between fuel density and fuel temperature [2526]

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Fig. 2

Comparison of CN of biodiesels vis-a-vis mineral diesel [15,30,44,66,67,70]. (Soy: soybean, Rape: rapeseed, Sunf: sunflower, Palm: palm, Jatr: jatropha, Kara: karanja, Tall: tallow, and B20: 20% v/v biodiesel blend).

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Fig. 3

Comparison of LHV of biodiesels and mineral diesel [42,44,6870,73,74,77,78,8082] (Soy: soybean, Rape: rapeseed, Sunf: sunflower, Palm: palm, Jatr: jatropha, Kara: karanja, Tall: tallow, and B20: 20% biodiesel blend)

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Fig. 4

Comparison of iodine values of various biodiesels [14,75,83] (Btal: beef tallow, Was: waste cooking oil, Jat: jatropha, Cot: cotton seed, Rap: rapeseed, Soy: soybean, and Sun: sunflower)

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Fig. 5

Flow chart for fuel injection rate analysis [85]

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Fig. 6

Schematic of the Bosch rate of injection meter [73]

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Fig. 7

Comparison of volumetric injection rate of mineral diesel and biodiesel (Pinj = 60 MPa, 80 MPa, Pamb = 4.0 MPa, and teng = 1.2 ms) [85]

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Fig. 8

Needle-lift, needle speed, exit velocity, and spray width of mineral diesel and biodiesel through an entire injection process (Pinj = 150 MPa, Pamb = 0.1 MPa, and Tamb = 300 K) [90]

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Fig. 9:

Temporal spray evolution process and velocity distribution of ambient gas around the fuel spray [98]

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Fig. 10

Comparison of experimental and numerical results for mineral diesel and biodiesel sprays (teng = 1.2 ms and Tf = 293 K) [85]: (a) Pinj = 60 MPa and (b) Pinj = 80 MPa

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Fig. 11

Near-exit flow morphology of biodiesel and mineral diesel during steady-state (Pinj = 150 MPa, Pamb = 0.1 MPa, and Tamb = 300 K) [90]

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Fig. 12

Variation of SMD for mineral diesel and biodiesel at different FIP and nozzle hole diameters (Pinj = 100, 200, and 300 MPa; do = 0.08 and 0.16 mm) [98]

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Fig. 13

Mean droplet size distribution of biodiesel-blended fuels (Pinj = 60 MPa) [53]

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Fig. 14

Axial velocity of mineral diesel and biodiesel sprays at different FIPs [90]

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Fig. 15

Spatial and time-resolved combustion endoscopy images of biodiesel blends and diesel at 50% load at various crank angles in an engine cycle [113]

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Fig. 16

Effect of FIP and SoI timing on cylinder pressure and HRR of biodiesel blends vis-à-vis mineral diesel [70]

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Fig. 17

Effect of Karanja biodiesel blend concentration on engine brake torque [128]

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Fig. 18

Effect of FIP and SoI timings on BTE of biodiesel blends vis-à-vis mineral diesel [70]

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Fig. 19

Schematic showing possible pathways for organic compounds present in the fuels

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Fig. 20

Classical flow-chart of soot formation steps [164]

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Fig. 21

Typical composition of diesel particulates

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Fig. 22

Total toxic equivalent potential of PAHs emitted by mineral diesel and biodiesel (B20) fueled engine particulates (Primary and secondary) [169]

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Fig. 23

Experimental and numerical axial penetration length for (a) PME vapor and liquid and (b) PME, CME, SME, and mineral diesel in liquid phase [229]

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Fig. 24

Distillation curve using five-component fuel simulation for different commercial biodiesels [232]

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Fig. 25

Liquid spray penetration comparisons using original and improved KH-RT spray constants for biodiesel [233]

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Fig. 26

Temperature profiles at different initial temperatures using 115-species skeletal mechanism and detailed mechanism, respectively [245]

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Fig. 27

Key pathway in the MD+MD9D mechanism [246]

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Fig. 28

Numerical composition of BD20 and the species information exchange between physical and chemistry models [239]

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Fig. 29

Fuel consumption characteristics under different (a) mixing ratios of biodiesel and (b) injection timings [239]

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Fig. 30

Combustion pressure and heat release rate using (a) MB/n-heptane mechanism and (b) MD/MD9D/n-heptane mechanism with comparison to experimental results [232]

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Fig. 31

Combustion pressure and heat release rate for (a) SME20 and (b) PME20 biodiesel blends [247]

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Fig. 32

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration for MB/n-heptane (green triangle) and MD/MD9D/n-heptane (red circle) mechanisms at various engine loads [247]

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Fig. 33

Emissions concentration for (a) SME20 and (b) PME20 under LTC combustion conditions [247]

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