Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Growth Media Affects Microalgae Susceptibility to Disruption by Low-Frequency Power Ultrasound

[+] Author and Article Information
Rory Klinger

Department of Civil, Construction,
and Environmental Engineering,
San Diego State University,
5500 Campanile Drive,
San Diego, CA 92182-1326
e-mail: roryklinger@gmail.com

Temesgen Garoma

Department of Civil, Construction,
and Environmental Engineering,
San Diego State University,
5500 Campanile Drive,
San Diego, CA 92182-1326
e-mail: tgaroma@mail.sdsu.edu

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received December 22, 2017; final manuscript received July 31, 2018; published online August 30, 2018. Assoc. Editor: David Macphee.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(12), 122004 (Aug 30, 2018) (5 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1727; doi: 10.1115/1.4041090 History: Received December 22, 2017; Revised July 31, 2018

The effect of microalgae growth medium on power ultrasound treatment of microalgal biomass was investigated. Chlorella vulgaris was grown in Bold's basal medium (BBM), Bristol's medium, sueoka medium, and MiracleGro All Purpose Water Soluble Plant Food. These media showed statistically indistinguishable intrinsic growth rates, averaging 0.052/day. Power ultrasound treatment was applied at 9.5 W for 5 min. MiracleGro showed chemical oxygen demand (COD) solvation post-sonication of 66%, twice that of other growth media per cell ruptured; which was unexpected based on observed consistent biomass quality. Media differences do not appear to have an effect on ultrasound power transfer; thus, C. vulgaris grown in MiracleGro medium has a decreased strength in terms of resistance to rupture by ultrasound. These results suggest that while biomass productivity and composition are important for the efficiency of extraction, media effects on the susceptibility of cells to pretreatment should not be ignored in overall process design.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Ultrasound , Biomass
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Darzins, A. , Pienkos, P. , and Edye, L. , 2010, “Current Status and Potential for Algal Biofuels Production,” 39th ed., National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Queensland, Australia, Report No. T39-T2.
Liew, W. H. , Hassim, M. H. , and Ng, D. K. S. , 2014, “Review of Evolution, Technology and Sustainability Assessments of Biofuel Production,” J. Cleaner Prod., 71(0), pp. 11–29. [CrossRef]
Hughes, D. E. , Wimpenny, J. W. T. , and Lloyd, D. , 1971, “Chapter I The Disintegration of Micro-Organisms,” Methods in Microbiology, J. R. Norris , and D. W. Ribbons , eds., Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–54.
Rajasekhar, P. , Fan, L. , Nguyen, T. , and Roddick, F. A. , 2012, “Impact of Sonication at 20 kHz on Microcystis Aeruginosa, Anabaena Circinalis and Chlorella Sp,” Water Res., 46(5), pp. 1473–1481. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lee, J. Y. , Yoo, C. , Jun, S. Y. , Ahn, C. Y. , and Oh, H. M. , 2010, “Comparison of Several Methods for Effective Lipid Extraction From Microalgae,” Bioresour. Technol., 101(Suppl. 1), pp. S75–S77. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Halim, R. , Harun, R. , Danquah, M. K. , and Webley, P. A. , 2012, “Microalgal Cell Disruption for Biofuel Development,” Appl. Energy, 91(1), pp. 116–121. [CrossRef]
Halim, R. , Rupasinghe, T. W. T. , Tull, D. L. , and Webley, P. A. , 2013, “Mechanical Cell Disruption for Lipid Extraction From Microalgal Biomass,” Bioresour. Technol., 140, pp. 53–63. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gerde, J. A. , Montalbo-Lomboy, M. , Yao, L. , Grewell, D. , and Wang, T. , 2012, “Evaluation of Microalgae Cell Disruption by Ultrasonic Treatment,” Bioresour. Technol., 125, pp. 175–181. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
McMillan, J. R. , Watson, I. A. , Ali, M. , and Jaafar, W. , 2013, “Evaluation and Comparison of Algal Cell Disruption Methods: Microwave, Waterbath, Blender, Ultrasonic and Laser Treatment,” Appl. Energy, 103, pp. 128–134. [CrossRef]
Widjaja, A. , Chien, C. C. , and Ju, Y. H. , 2009, “Study of Increasing Lipid Production From Fresh Water Microalgae Chlorella Vulgaris,” J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 40(1), pp. 13–20. [CrossRef]
Kanaga, K. , Pandey, A. , Kumar, S. , and Geetanjali , 2016, “Multi-Objective Optimization of Media Nutrients for Enhanced Production of Algae Biomass and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis From Chlorella Pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738,” Bioresour. Technol., 200, pp. 940–950. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sueoka, N. , 1960, “Mitotic Replication of Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Chlamydomonas Reinhardi,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 46(1), pp. 83–91. [CrossRef]
Bischoff, H. W. , and Bold, H. C. , 1963, “Some Soil Algae From Enchanted Rock and Related Algal Species,” Phycological Studies IV, University of Texas, Austin, TX, pp. 1–95.
Bold, H. C. , 1949, “The Morphology of Chlamydomonas Chlamydogama, Sp. Nov,” Bull. Torrey Botanical Club, 76(2), pp. 101–108. [CrossRef]
Claus, G. W. , and Blakwill, D. , 1989, Understanding Microbes: A Laboratory Textbook for Microbiology, W.H. Freeman, New York, pp. 203–204.
Hadj-Romdhane, F. , Jaouen, P. , Pruvost, J. , Grizeau, D. , VanVooren, G. , and Bourseau, P. , 2012, “Development and Validation of a Minimal Growth Medium for Recycling Chlorella Vulgaris Culture,” Bioresour. Technol., 123, pp. 366–374. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gorman, D. S. , and Levine, R. P. , 1965, “Cytochrome F and Plastocyanin—Thier Sequence in Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain of Chlamydomonas Reinhardi,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 54(6), pp. 1665–1669. [CrossRef]
Lee, K. , Eisterhold, M. L. , Rindi, F. , Palanisami, S. , and Nam, P. K. , 2014, “Isolation and Screening of Microalgae From Natural Habitats in the Midwestern United States of America for Biomass and Biodiesel Sources,” J. Nat. Sci. Biol. Med., 5(2), pp. 333–339. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rice, E. W. , Bard, R. B. , Eaton, A. D. , and Clesceri, L. S. , eds., 2012, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 22nd ed., American Water Works Association, Washington, DC, p. 1496.
Raso, J. , Mañas, P. , Pagan, R. , and Sala, F. J. , 1999, “Influence of Different Factors on the Output Power Transferred Into Medium by Ultrasound,” Ultrason. Sonochem., 5(4), pp. 157–162. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chiu, Y.-C. , Chang, C. , Lin, J. , and Huang, S. , 1997, “Alkaline and Ultrasonic Pretreatment of Sludge before Anaerobic Digestion,” Water Sci. Technol., 36(11), pp. 155–162. [CrossRef]
Ott, R. L. , and Longnecker, M. , 2010, “Multiple Comparisons,” An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis, Brooks/Cole, Independence, Kentucky, Australia, pp. 451–498.
Wood, M. A. , Everroad, R. C. , and Wingard, L. M. , 2005, “ Measuring Growth Rates in Microalgal Cultures,” Algal Culturing Techniques, R. A. Andersen , ed., Elsevier University Press, Burlington, MA, pp. 269–285.
Griffiths, M. J. , Garcin, C. , van Hille, R. P. , and Harrison, S. T. L. , 2011, “Interference by Pigment in the Estimation of Microalgal Biomass Concentration by Optical Density,” J. Microbiol. Methods, 85(2), pp. 119–123. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., 2003, “Anaerobic Suspended and Attached Growth Biological Treatment Processes,” Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse, G. Tchobanoglous , F. L. Burton , and H. D. Stensel , eds., McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA, pp. 983–1034.
Garoma, T. , and Shackelford, T. , 2014, “Electroporation of Chlorella Vulgaris to Enhance Biomethane Production,” Bioresour. Technol., 169, pp. 778–783. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ensminger, D. , and Bond, L. J. , 2011, “Applications of High-Intensity Ultrasonics: Basic Mechanisms and Effects,” Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Applications, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 459–494.
Lauterborn, W. , and Mettin, R. , 2015, “3—Acoustic Cavitation: Bubble Dynamics in High-Power Ultrasonic Fields,” Power Ultrasonics, J. A. Gallego-Juárez , and K. F. Graff , eds., Woodhead Publishing, Oxford, UK, pp. 37–78.
Louisnard, O. , and González-García, J. , 2011, “Acoustic Cavitation,” Ultrasound Technologies for Food and Bioprocessing, H. Feng , G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas , and J. Weiss , eds., Springer, New York, pp. 13–64.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Calculated molar concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in synthetic freshwater media

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Sample spectrophotometric absorbance spectrum of C. vulgaris grown in BBM medium.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Power ultrasound effect on percentage viability of C. vulgaris grown in specified media. Change in percentage cell viability as PI fluorescence after 5 min 9.5 W power ultrasound treatment of 50 ml volume. Error bars are one standard deviation. Minimum viability of cultures prior to treatment was 98.2%.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Solvation of C. vulgaris COD in specified media by power ultrasound. Soluble fraction of COD before and after 5 min 9.5 W power ultrasound treatment of 50 ml volume. Error bars are one standard deviation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Intrinsic growth rates (r) of C. vulgaris grown in specified media. Sample size (n) defines cultures that reached observable maximum growth rate in 31 days without crash. Error bars are one standard deviation.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In