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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Well-Placement Optimization in Heavy Oil Reservoirs Using a Novel Method of In Situ Steam Generation

[+] Author and Article Information
Tamer Moussa

Petroleum Engineering Department,
College of Petroleum
Engineering and Geosciences,
King Fahad University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
P. O. Box: 5049,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia;
Center for Integrative Petroleum Research,
College of Petroleum
Engineering and Geosciences,
King Fahad University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
P. O. Box: 5049,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: t-moussa@outlook.com

Mohamed Mahmoud

Petroleum Engineering Department,
College of Petroleum
Engineering and Geosciences,
King Fahad University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
P. O. Box: 5049,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia;
Center for Integrative Petroleum Research,
College of Petroleum
Engineering and Geosciences,
King Fahad University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
P. O. Box: 5049,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: mmahmoud@kfupm.edu.sa

Esmail M. A. Mokheimer

Mem. ASME
Mechanical Engineering Department,
College of Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
P. O. Box: 279,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia;
Center of Research Excellence in
Energy Efficiency (CEEE),
King Fahd University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
P. O. Box: 279,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia;
Center of Research Excellence in
Renewable Energy (CoRe-RE),
King Fahd University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
P. O. Box: 279,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: esmailm@kfupm.edu.sa

Mohamed A. Habib

Mechanical Engineering Department,
College of Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
P. O. Box: 1866,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: mahabib@kfupm.edu.sa

Salaheldin Elkatatny

Petroleum Engineering Department,
College of Petroleum
Engineering and Geosciences,
King Fahad University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
P. O. Box: 5049,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia;
Center for Integrative Petroleum Research,
College of Petroleum
Engineering and Geosciences,
King Fahad University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
P. O. Box: 5049,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: elkatatny@kfupm.edu.sa

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 11, 2018; final manuscript received September 24, 2018; published online October 24, 2018. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(3), 032906 (Oct 24, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1709; doi: 10.1115/1.4041613 History: Received September 11, 2018; Revised September 24, 2018

Determination of optimal well locations plays an important role in the efficient recovery of hydrocarbon resources. However, it is a challenging and complex task. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimal well locations in a heavy oil reservoir under production using a novel recovery process in which steam is generated, in situ, using thermochemical reactions. Self-adaptive differential evolution (SaDE) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) methods are used as the global optimizer to find the optimal configuration of wells that will yield the highest net present value (NPV). This is the first known application, where SaDE and PSO methods are used to optimize well locations in a heavy oil reservoir that is recovered by injecting steam generated in situ using thermo-chemical reactions. Comparison analysis between the two proposed optimization techniques is introduced. On the other hand, laboratory experiments were performed to confirm the heavy oil production by thermochemical means. CMG STARS simulator is utilized to simulate reservoir models with different well configurations. The experimental results showed that thermochemicals, such as ammonium chloride along with sodium nitrate, can be used to generate in situ thermal energy, which efficiently reduces heavy-oil viscosity. Comparison of results is made between the NPV achieved by the well configuration proposed by the SaDE and PSO methods. The results showed that the optimization using SaDE resulted in 15% increase in the NPV compared to that of the PSO after 10 years of production under in situ steam injection process using thermochemical reactions.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Setup of thermochemicals experiment to recover heavy-oil

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Fig. 2

Heat profile generated by in situ thermochemical reaction

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Fig. 4

Simulation of single in situ thermochemical reaction

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Fig. 7

Simulation of four in situ thermochemical reactions

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Fig. 5

Simulation of two in situ thermochemical reactions

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Fig. 6

Simulation of three in situ thermochemical reactions

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Fig. 8

Comparison of different cases. (a) COP and (b) cumulative liquid production.

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Fig. 9

Reservoir oil viscosity distribution (a) single-reaction case and (b) four-reactions case

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Fig. 10

Soaking time effect on (a) cumulative oil production and (b) downhole temperature

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Fig. 11

Net present value achieved by optimizing well locations by SaDE and PSO methods

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Fig. 3

Flow chart for optimizing wells' locations

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Fig. 12

Heat distribution in the reservoir. (a) SaDE-optimized case and (b) base case.

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Fig. 13

Viscosity distribution in the reservoir. (a) SaDE-optimized case and (b) base case.

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Fig. 14

Recovery performance comparison between the optimized and base case

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