0
Research Papers: Oil/Gas Reservoirs

Characterization of Foamy Oil and Gas/Oil Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media for a Heavy Oil/Methane System

[+] Author and Article Information
Xinqian Lu, Xiang Zhou, Xiaolong Peng

Petroleum Systems Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Regina,
Regina S4S 0A2, SK, Canada

Jianxin Luo

College of Petroleum Engineering,
Southwest Petroleum University,
Chengdu 610500, Sichuan, China

Fanhua Zeng

Petroleum Systems Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Regina,
Regina S4S 0A2, SK, Canada
e-mail: fanhua.zeng@uregina.ca

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 20, 2018; final manuscript received September 29, 2018; published online October 24, 2018. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(3), 032801 (Oct 24, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1556; doi: 10.1115/1.4041662 History: Received July 20, 2018; Revised September 29, 2018

In our previous study, a series of experiments had been conducted by applying different pressure depletion rates in a 1 m long sand-pack. In this study, numerical simulation models are built to simulate the lab tests, for both gas/oil production data and pressure distribution along the sand-pack in heavy oil/methane system. Two different simulation models are used: (1) equilibrium black oil model with two sets of gas/oil relative permeability curves; (2) a four-component nonequilibrium kinetic model. Good matching results on production data are obtained by applying black oil model. However, this black oil model cannot be used to match pressure distribution along the sand-pack. This result suggests the description of foamy oil behavior by applying equilibrium black oil model is incomplete. For better characterization, a four-component nonequilibrium kinetic model is developed aiming to match production data and pressure distribution simultaneously. Two reactions are applied in the simulation to capture gas bubbles status. Good matching results for production data and pressure distribution are simultaneously obtained by considering low gas relative permeability and kinetic reactions. Simulation studies indicate that higher pressure drop rate would cause stronger foamy oil flow, but the exceed pressure drop rate could shorten lifetime of foamy oil flow. This work is the first study to match production data and pressure distribution and provides a methodology to characterize foamy oil flow behavior in porous media for a heavy oil/methane system.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Dusseault, M. B. , 2001, “ Comparing Venezuelan and Canadian Heavy Oil and Tar Sands,” Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, AB, Canada, June 12–14, pp. 1–20. https://www.southportland.org/files/3713/9387/3165/Heavy_Oil_and_Tar_Sands.pdf
Gupta, S. , Gittins, S. , and Picherack, P. , 2004, “ Insights Into Some Key Issues With Solvent Aided Process,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 43(2), pp. 54–61.
Huang, Y. , Zhou, X. , and Zeng, F. , 2016, “ Comparison Study of Two Different Methods on the Localised EnKF on SAGD Processes,” International Petroleum Technology Conference (IPTC), Bangkok, Thailand, Nov. 14–16, Paper No. IPTC-18907-MS.
Jia, X. , Zeng, F. , and Gu, Y. , 2014, “ A New Mathematical Model for the Solvent Chamber Evolution in the Vapour Extraction (VAPEX) Process,” J. Porous Media, 17(12), pp. 1093–1108.
Rui, Z. , Wang, X. , Zhang, Z. , Lu, J. , Chen, G. , Zhou, X. , and Patil, S. , 2018, “ A Realistic and Integrated Model for Evaluating Oil Sands Development With Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Technology in Canada,” Appl. Energy, 213, pp. 76–91. [CrossRef]
Zheng, J. , Leung, J. Y. , Sawatzky, R. P. , and Alvarez, J. M. , 2018, “ A Proxy Model for Predicting SAGD Production From Reservoirs Containing Shale Barriers,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(12), p. 122903. [CrossRef]
Peng, X. , Zeng, F. , Du, Z. , and Yang, H. , 2017, “ Experimental Study on Pressure Control Strategies for Improving Water Flooding Potentials in a Heavy Oil-Methane System,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 149, pp. 126–137. [CrossRef]
Du, Z. , Zeng, F. , Peng, X. , and Chan, C. , 2016, “ Optimizing the Pressure Decline Rate on the Cyclic Solvent Injection Process for Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 145, pp. 629–639. [CrossRef]
Venkatramani, A. V. , and Okuno, R. , 2018, “ Steam-Oil Ratio in Steam-Solvent Coinjection Simulation for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Bitumen Reservoirs,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(11), p. 112903. [CrossRef]
Zhou, D. , and Yang, D. , 2017, “ Scaling Criteria for Waterflooding and Immiscible CO2 Flooding in Heavy Oil Reservoirs,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(2), p. 022909. [CrossRef]
Liu, P. , Zheng, H. , and Wu, G. , 2017, “ Experimental Study and Application of Steam Flooding for Horizontal Well in Ultraheavy Oil Reservoirs,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(1), p. 012908. [CrossRef]
Zhang, M. , Du, Z. , Zeng, F. , Hong, S. Y. , and Xu, S. , 2016, “ Upscaling Study of the Cyclic Solvent Injection Process for Post-CHOPS Reservoirs Through Numerical Simulation,” Can. J. Chem. Eng., 94(7), pp. 1402–1412.
Hong, S. Y. , Zeng, F. , and Du, Z. , 2017, “ Characterization of Gas-Oil Flow in Cyclic Solvent Injection (CSI) for Heavy Oil Recovery,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 152, pp. 639–652. [CrossRef]
Zhou, X. , Zeng, F. , Zhang, L. , and Wang, H. , 2016, “ Foamy Oil Flow in Heavy Oil-Solvent Systems Tested by Pressure Depletion in a Sandpack,” Fuel, 171, pp. 210–223. [CrossRef]
Luo, P. , Yang, C. , Tharanivasan, A. , and Gu, Y. , 2005, “ In Situ Upgrading of Heavy Oil in a Solvent-Based Heavy Oil Recovery Process,” Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, AB, Canada, June 7–9, Paper No. PETSOC-2005-098, pp. 37–43.
Maini, B. B. , and Busahmin, B. , 2010, “ Foamy Oil Flow and Its Role in Heavy Oil Production,” AIP Conf. Proc., 1254, pp. 103–108.
Bayon, Y. M. , Cordelier, P. R. , Coates, R. M. , Lillico, D. A. , and Sawatzky, R. P. , 2002, “ Application and Comparison of Two Models of Foamy Oil Behavior of Long Core Depletion Experiments,” SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and International Horizontal Well Technology Conference, Calgary, AB, Canada, Nov. 4–7, SPE Paper No. SPE-78961-MS.
Chen, J. Z. , and Maini, B. , 2005, “ Numerical Simulation of Foamy Oil Depletion Tests,” Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, AB, Canada, June 7–9, Paper No. PETSOC-2005-073.
Kumar, R. , and Pooladi-darvish, M. , 2002, “ Solution-Gas Drive in Heavy Oil: Field Prediction and Sensitivity Studies Using Low Gas Relative Permeability,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 41(3), pp. 26–32. [CrossRef]
Sheng, J. J. , Hayes, R. E. , Maini, B. B. , and Tortike, W. S. , 1995, “ A Proposed Dynamic Model for Foamy Oil Properties,” SPE International Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, AB, Canada, June 19–21, SPE Paper No. SPE-30253-MS.
Maini, B. B. , 2001, “ Foamy-Oil Flow,” J. Pet. Technol., 53(10), pp. 54–64. [CrossRef]
Bayon, Y. M. , Cordelier, P. R. , and Nectoux, A. , 2002, “ A New Methodology to Match Heavy-Oil Long-Core Primary Depletion Experiments,” SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, OK, Apr. 13–17, SPE Paper No. SPE-75133-MS.
Sahni, A. , Gadelle, F. , Kumar, M. , Tomutsa, L. , and Kovscek, A. R. , 2004, “ Experiments and Analysis of Heavy-Oil Solution-Gas Drive,” SPE Reservoir Eval. Eng., 7(3), pp. 217–229. [CrossRef]
Wang, H. , Zeng, F. , and Zhou, X. , 2015, “ Study of the Non-Equilibrium PVT Properties of Methane- and Propane-Heavy Oil Systems,” SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, Calgary, AB, Canada, June 9–11, SPE Paper No. SPE-174498-MS.
Bora, R. , Chakma, A. , and Maini, B. B. , 2003, “ Experimental Investigation of Foamy Oil Flow Using a High Pressure Etched Glass Micromodel,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 5–8 October, Denver, CO, SPE Paper No. SPE-84033-MS.
Shi, Y. , and Yang, D. , 2017, “ Experimental and Theoretical Quantification of Nonequilibrium Phase Behavior and Physical Properties of Foamy Oil Under Reservoir Conditions,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(6), p. 062902. [CrossRef]
Sheikha, H. , and Pooladi-Darvish, M. , 2009, “ The Effect of Pressure-Decline Rate and Pressure Gradient on the Behavior of Solution-Gas Drive in Heavy Oil,” SPE Reservoir Eval. Eng., 12(3), pp. 390–398. [CrossRef]
Oskouei, S. J. P. , Zadeh, A. B. , and Gates, I. D. , 2017, “ A New Kinetic Model for Non-Equilibrium Dissolved Gas Ex-Solution From Static Heavy Oil,” Fuel, 204, pp. 12–22. [CrossRef]
Brice, B. , Ning, S. , Wood, A. , and Renouf, G. , 2014, “ Optimum Voidage Replacement Ratio and Operational Practice for Heavy Oil Waterfloods,” SPE Heavy Oil Conference-Canada, Calgary, AB, Canada, June 10–12, SPE Paper No. SPE-170099-MS, pp. 1–14.
Lu, T. , Li, Z. , Li, S. , Wang, P. , Wang, Z. , and Liu, S. , 2016, “ Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery After Solution Gas Drive by Water Flooding,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 137, pp. 113–124. [CrossRef]
Peng, X. , 2016, “ Experimental Study on Improving the Waterflooding Potential in Different Heavy Oil-Solvent Systems,” Master's thesis, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada. http://hdl.handle.net/10294/7632
Jia, X. , Zeng, F. , and Gu, Y. , 2013, “ Pressure Pulsing Cyclic Solvent Injection (PP-CSI): a New Way to Enhance the Recovery of Heavy Oil Through Solvent-Based Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, LA, Sept. 30–Oct. 2, SPE Paper No. SPE-166453-MS, pp. 4389–4403.
Jia, X. , Zeng, F. , and Gu, Y. , 2014, “ Gasflooding-Assisted Cyclic Solvent Injection (GA-CSI) for Enhancing Heavy Oil Recovery,” SPE Heavy Oil Conference, Calgary, AB, Canada, June 10–12, SPE Paper No. SPE-170157-MS, pp. 344–353.
Du, Z. , Zeng, F. , and Chan, C. , 2015, “ An Experimental Study of the Post-CHOPS Cyclic Solvent Injection Process,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 137(4), p. 042901. [CrossRef]
Sheng, J. J. , and Alberta, U. , 1986, “ A Dynamic Model to Simulate Foamy Oil Flow in Porous Media,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, CO, Oct. 6–9, SPE Paper No. SPE-36750-MS.
Kraus, W. P. , Mccaffrey, W. J. , and Boyd, G. W. , 1993, “ Pseudo-Bubble Point Model for Foamy Oils,” Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, AB, Canada, May 9–12, Paper No. PETSOC-93-45.
Mastmann, M. , Moustakis, M. L. , and Bennion, D. B. , 2001, “ Predicting Foamy Oil Recovery,” SPE Western Regional Meeting Bakersfield, CA, Mar. 26–30, SPE Paper No. SPE-68860-MS, p. 20.
Chen, Z. J. , Sun, J. , Wang, R. , and Wu, X. , 2015, “ A Pseudobubblepoint Model and Its Simulation for Foamy Oil in Porous Media,” SPE J., 20(2), pp. 239–247. [CrossRef]
Kumar, R. , Pooladi-Darvish, M. , and Okazawa, T. , 2002, “ Effect of Depletion Rate on Gas Mobility and Solution Gas Drive in Heavy Oil,” SPE J., 7(2), pp. 3–5. [CrossRef]
Talabi, O. , Pooladi-Darvish, M. , and Okazawa, T. , 2003, “ Effect of Rate and Viscosity on Gas Mobility During Solution-Gas Drive in Heavy Oils,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, CO, Oct. 5–8, SPE Paper No. SPE-84032-MS.
Sheng, J. J. , Maini, B. B. , Hayes, R. E. , and Tortike, W. S. , 1999, “ Non-Equilibrium Model to Calculate Foamy Oil Properties,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 38(4), pp. 38–45. [CrossRef]
Saputelli, B. , L. A. , Canache, P. , C. M. , and López, E. , 1998, “ Application of a Non-Equilibrium Reaction Model for Describing Horizontal Well Performance in Foamy Oils,” SPE International Conference on Horizontal Well Technology, Calgary, AB, Canada, Nov. 1–4, SPE Paper No. SPE-50414-MS.
Ivory, J. , Chang, J. , Coates, R. , and Forshner, K. , 2009, “ Investigation of Cyclic Solvent Injection Process for Heavy Oil Recovery,” Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, AB, Canada, June 16–18, Paper No. PETSOC-2009-161.
Chang, J. , and Ivory, J. , 2013, “ Field-Scale Simulation of Cyclic Solvent Injection (CSI),” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 52(4), pp. 251–265. [CrossRef]
Ivory, J. , Chang, J. , Coates, R. , and Forshner, K. , 2010, “ Investigation of Cyclic Solvent Injection Process for Heavy Oil Recovery,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 49(9), pp. 22–33. [CrossRef]
Computer Modeling Group, 2016, “ CMG User Guide,” Computer Modeling Group, Calgary, AB, Canada.
McCain, W. D. , 1990, The Properties of Petroleum Fluids, PennWell Books, Tulsa, OK, p. 354.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Gas phase relative permeability curves comparison of four cases after pseudo-bubble point

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Oil phase relative permeability curves comparison of four cases after pseudo-bubble point

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Relative permeability curves of liquid–gas phase by using Corey's equation [46]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Tuned relative permeability curves of case 1 with 0.46 kPa/min pressure depletion rate: (a) first relative permeability curves of case 1 before pseudo-bubble point and (b) second relative permeability curves of case 1 after pseudo-bubble point

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the foamy oil flow experimental setup [14]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Tuned relative permeability curves of case 2 with 0.97 kPa/min pressure depletion rate: (a) first relative permeability curves of case 2 before pseudo-bubble point and (b) second relative permeability curves of case 2 after pseudo-bubble point

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Tuned relative permeability curves of case 3 with 1.70 kPa/min pressure depletion rate: (a) first relative permeability curves of case 3 before pseudo-bubble point and (b) second relative permeability curves of case 3 after pseudo-bubble point

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Tuned relative permeability curves of case 4 with 4.02 kPa/min pressure depletion rate: (a) first relative permeability curves of case 4 before pseudo-bubble point and (b) second relative permeability curves of case 4 after pseudo-bubble point

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Production history match of case 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Production history match of case 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Production history match of case 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Production history match of case 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Experimental pressure and simulated pressure (P1) comparison of case 1 to case 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Relationship between K value and pressure depletion rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Pressure distribution at inlet of case 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Production history match of case 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Pressure distribution at inlet of case 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Production history match of case 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 26

Pressure distribution at inlet of case 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 27

Effect of K values to (a) cumulative oil production and (b) cumulative gas production

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 28

Effect of reaction frequency factor of reaction 1 to (a) cumulative oil production and (b) cumulative gas production

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 29

Effect of reaction frequency factor of reaction 2 to (a) cumulative oil production and (b) cumulative gas production

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 30

Effect of relative permeability curves to (a) cumulative oil production and (b) cumulative gas production

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Relationship between reaction frequency factor and pressure depletion rate: (a) reaction frequency factor of reaction 1 with pressure depletion rate and (b) reaction frequency factor of reaction 2 with pressure depletion rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Relative permeability of case 1 to case 4 in the nonequilibrium model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Relative permeability curves comparison of four cases in the nonequilibrium model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Production history match of case 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Pressure distribution at inlet of case 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Production history match of case 2

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In