0
Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

A Mechanistic Model of Predicting Solid Particle Erosion on the Symmetry Plane of Elbows for Annular Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
Rong Kang

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic
Engineering Simulation and Safety,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China
e-mail: kangrong@tju.edu.cn

Haixiao Liu

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic
Engineering Simulation and Safety,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China;
Collaborative Innovation Center for
Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: liuhx@tju.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received February 12, 2018; final manuscript received December 8, 2018; published online January 9, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Esmail M. A. Mokheimer.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(3), 032907 (Jan 09, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1122; doi: 10.1115/1.4042232 History: Received February 12, 2018; Revised December 08, 2018

In the transportation process of oil and gas, solid particle erosion in pipelines is an inevitable problem. The erosion usually occurs in fittings with changing flow directions, such as elbows. A theoretical model based on mechanism analyses is developed for predicting the solid particle erosion on the symmetry plane of elbows for annular flow. This model is a sort of generalized erosion prediction procedure, which resolves the erosion process into the description of the flow field velocity profile, particle motion rules, and penetration calculation. The 1/7th power law is adopted to represent the velocity profile of gas core, and a linear velocity profile is assigned to the liquid film. The trajectories of particles in the gas core and the liquid film are discretized, and a mathematical model is developed by analyzing external forces acting on particles. The impact speeds and angles of particles can be obtained from the mathematical model, and the penetration ratios are then estimated by incorporating the impingement information of particles into the erosion formulas. By contrast with experimental data, the mechanistic model is validated and indicates advantages in both accuracy and efficiency. Furthermore, the effects of different parameters on penetration ratios are discussed in detail, including the superficial gas velocity, superficial liquid velocity, pipe diameter, particle diameter, curvature radius, and liquid viscosity.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Salama, M. , and Venkatesh, E. , 1983, “ Evaluation of API RP 14E Erosional Velocity Limitations for Offshore Gas Wells,” Fifth Annular Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 2–5, OTC Paper No. 4485.
Salama, M. M. , 2000, “ An Alternative to API 14E Erosional Velocity Limits for Sand-Laden Fluids,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 122(2), pp. 71–77. [CrossRef]
Bourgoyne, A. T., Jr. , 1989, “ Experimental Study of Erosion in Diverter Systems Due to Sand Production,” SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, New Orleans, LA, March 28, SPE Paper No. SPE-18716-MS.
Mazumder, Q. H. , Shirazi, S. A. , and McLaury, B. S. , 2008, “ Prediction of Solid Particle Erosive Wear of Elbows in Multiphase Annular Flow-Model Development and Experimental Validations,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 130(2), p. 023001. [CrossRef]
McLaury, B. S. , and Shirazi, S. A. , 2000, “ An Alternate Method to API RP 14E for Predicting Solids Erosion in Multiphase Flow,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 122(3), pp. 115–122. [CrossRef]
Det Norske Veritas, 2011, “ Recommended Practice RP O501 Erosive Wear in Piping Systems,” DNV Recommended Practice, Oslo, Norway.
McLaury, B. S. , 1996, “ Predicting Solid Particle Erosion Resulting From Turbulent Fluctuations in Oilfield Geometries,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK.
Edwards, J. K. , 2000, “ Development, Validation, and Application of a Three-Dimensional, CFD-Based Erosion Prediction Procedure,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK.
Chen, X. H. , McLaury, B. S. , and Shirazi, S. A. , 2006, “ A Comprehensive Procedure to Estimate Erosion in Elbows for Gas/Liquid/Sand Multiphase Flow,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 128(1), pp. 70–78. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. , McLaury, B. S. , Shirazi, S. A. , and Rybicki, E. F. , 2010, “ A Two-Dimensional Mechanistic Model for Sand Erosion Prediction Including Particle Impact Characteristics,” NACE International Corrosion 2010 Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, TX, Mar. 14–18, NACE Paper No. 10378 https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/NACE-10378.
Zhang, R. , Liu, H. X. , and Zhao, C. T. , 2013, “ A Probability Model for Solid Particle Erosion in a Straight Pipe,” Wear, 308(1–2), pp. 1–9. [CrossRef]
Liu, M. Y. , and Liu, H. X. , 2015, “ A Numerical Procedure to Estimate Sand Erosion in Elbows for Annular-Mist Flow Based on Film Thickness and Droplet Diameter Prediction,” 25th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, Kona, HI, June 21–26, ISOPE Paper No. 0525. https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/ISOPE-I-15-299
Liu, M. Y. , Liu, H. X. , and Zhang, R. , 2015, “ Numerical Analyses of the Solid Particle Erosion in Elbows for Annular Flow,” Ocean Eng., 105, pp. 186–195. [CrossRef]
Liu, H. X. , Zhou, Z. W. , and Liu, M. Y. , 2015, “ A Probability Model of Predicting the Sand Erosion Profile in Elbows for Gas Flow,” Wear, 342, pp. 377–390. [CrossRef]
Zahedi, P. , Vieira, R. E. , Shirazi, S. A. , and McLaury, B. S. , 2016, “ Liquid Film Thickness and Erosion of Elbows in Gas-Liquid Annular Flow,” NACE International Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Mar. 6–10, NACE Paper No. 7711. https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/NACE-2016-7711
Zahedi, P. , Zhang, J. , Arabnejad, H. , McLaury, B. S. , and Shirazi, S. A. , 2017, “ CFD Simulation of Multiphase Flows and Erosion Predictions Under Annular Flow and Low Liquid Loading Conditions,” Wear, 376, pp. 1260–1270. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. , Lian, Z. H. , Abdelal, G. F. , and Lin, T. J. , 2018, “ Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Flow Capacity and Erosion Wear of Blooey Line in Gas Drilling,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(5), p. 054501.
Cheng, X. , and Amano, R. S. , 2018, “ Effects of Asymmetric Radial Clearance on Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(5), p. 052003.
McLaury, B. S. , Shirazi, S. A. , Viswanathan, V. , Mazumder, Q. H. , and Santos, G. , 2011, “ Distribution of Sand Particles in Horizontal and Vertical Annular Multiphase Flow in Pipes and the Effects on Sand Erosion,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 133(2), p. 023001. [CrossRef]
Vieira, R. E. , Parsi, M. , Zahedi, P. , McLaury, B. S. , and Shirazi, S. A. , 2017, “ Ultrasonic Measurements of Sand Particle Erosion Under Upward Multiphase Annular Flow Conditions in a Vertical-Horizontal Bend,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 93, pp. 48–62. [CrossRef]
Oka, Y. I. , Okamura, K. , and Yoshida, T. , 2005, “ Practical Estimation of Erosion Damage Caused by Solid Particle Impact—Part 1: Effects of Impact Parameters on a Predictive Equation,” Wear, 259(1–6), pp. 95–101. [CrossRef]
Oka, Y. I. , and Yoshida, T. , 2005, “ Practical Estimation of Erosion Damage Caused by Solid Particle Impact—Part 2: Mechanical Properties of Materials Directly Associated With Erosion Damage,” Wear, 259(1–6), pp. 102–109. [CrossRef]
Gill, L. E. , and Hewitt, G. F. , 1964, “ Sampling Probe Studies of the Gas Core in Annular Two-Phase Flow—II: Studies of the Effect of Phase Flow Rates on Phase and Velocity Distribution,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 19(9), pp. 665–682. [CrossRef]
Turner, J. M. , 1966, “ Annular Two-Phase Flow,” Ph.D. thesis, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH.
Zhang, H. Q. , Wang, C. , Sarica, C. , and Brill, J. P. , 2003, “ Unified Model for Gas-Liquid Pipe Flow Via Slug Dynamics—Part 1: Model Development,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 125(4), pp. 266–273. [CrossRef]
Kaji, R. , and Azzopardi, B. J. , 2010, “ The Effect of Pipe Diameter on the Structure of Gas/Liquid Flow in Vertical Pipes,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 36(4), pp. 303–313. [CrossRef]
Ambrosini, W. , Andreussi, P. , and Azzopardi, B. , 1991, “ A Physically Based Correlation for Drop Size in Annular Flow,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 17(4), pp. 497–507. [CrossRef]
Holt, A. , Azzopardi, B. , and Biddulph, M. , 1999, “ Calculation of Two-Phase Pressure Drop for Vertical Upflow in Narrow Passages by Means of a Flow Pattern Specific Model,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 77(1), pp. 7–15. [CrossRef]
Clift, R. , Grace, J. R. , and Weber, M. E. , 1978, Bubbles, Drops, and Particles, Academic Press, New York.
Ishii, M. , and Zuber, N. , 1979, “ Drag Coefficient and Relative Velocity in Bubbly, Droplet or Particulate Flows,” AIChE J., 25(5), pp. 843–855. [CrossRef]
Belt, R. , Van't Westende, J. , and Portela, L. , 2009, “ Prediction of the Interfacial Shear-Stress in Vertical Annular Flow,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 35(7), pp. 689–697. [CrossRef]
Magrini, K. L. , 2009, “ Liquid Entrainment in Annular Gas/Liquid Flow in Inclined Pipes,” M.S. thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK.
Schubring, D. , Ashwood, A. , Shedd, T. , and Hurlburt, E. , 2010, “ Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) Measurements of Liquid Film Thickness in Annular Flow—Part I: Methods and Data,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 36(10), pp. 815–824. [CrossRef]
Alamu, M. , and Azzopardi, B. , 2011, “ Simultaneous Investigation of Entrained Liquid Fraction, Liquid Film Thickness and Pressure Drop in Vertical Annular Flow,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 133(2), p. 023103. [CrossRef]
Kvernvold, O. , and Sandberg, R. , 1993, “ Production Rate Limits in Two-Phase Flow Systems: Erosion in Piping Systems for Production of Oil and Gas,” Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo, Norway, Report No. 93-3252.
Birchenough, P. M. , Dawson, S. G. B. , Lockett, T. J. , and McCarthy, P. , 1995, “ Critical Flow Rates Working Party,” AEA Technology, Harwell, UK, Report No. AEA-TSD-0348.
Mazumder, Q. H. , 2004, “ Development and Validation of a Mechanistic Model to Predict Erosion in Single-Phase and Multiphase Flow,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK.
Vieira, R. E. , Parsi, M. , Zahedi, P. , McLaury, B. S. , and Shirazi, S. A. , 2017, “ Electrical Resistance Probe Measurements of Solid Particle Erosion in Multiphase Annular Flow,” Wear, 382, pp. 15–28. [CrossRef]
Hewitt, G. F. , and Roberts, D. , 1969, “ Studies of Two-Phase Flow Patterns by Simultaneous X-Ray and Flash Photography,” Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, UK.
Parsi, M. , Al-Sarkhi, A. , Kara, M. , Sharma, P. , McLaury, B. S. , and Shirazi, S. A. , 2017, “ A New Dimensionless Number for Solid Particle Erosion in Natural Gas Elbows,” Wear, 390, pp. 80–83. [CrossRef]
Parsi, M. , Arabnejad, H. , Al-Sarkhi, A. , Zahedi, P. , Vieira, R. E. , Sharma, P. , and McLaury, B. S. , 2018, “ A New Correlation for Predicting Solid Particle Erosion Caused by Gas-Sand Flow in Elbows,” Offshore Technology Conference, Houston TX, Apr. 30–May 3, OTC Paper No. 28995.
Liu, H. X. , Yang, W. X. , and Kang, R. , 2018, “ A Correlation for Sand Erosion Prediction in Annular Flow Considering the Effect of Liquid Dynamic Viscosity,” Wear, 404, pp. 1–11. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of annular flow in a 90 deg elbow

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the cushion effect of the liquid film

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of the particle motion state in the elbow

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Components of particle velocity, fluid velocity, relative velocity, and particle external forces at point Ai

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of predicted values with experimental data [3134]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Pipe flow pattern map [39]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of experimental erosion data with predicted results

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of the present model and the correlation of Liu et al. [42]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effects of parameters on the erosion prediction: (a) predicted erosion versus superficial gas velocity; (b) predicted erosion versus superficial liquid velocity; (c) predicted erosion versus particle diameter; (d) predicted erosion versus pipe diameter; (e) predicted erosion versus curvature radius; and (f) predicted erosion versus liquid viscosity

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In