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Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Potential Impacts of Net-Zero Energy Buildings With Distributed Photovoltaic Power Generation on the U.S. Electrical Grid

[+] Author and Article Information
Dongsu Kim

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Mississippi State University,
P.O. Box 9552,
Mississippi State, MS 39762
e-mail: dk779@msstate.edu

Heejin Cho

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Mississippi State University,
P.O. Box 9552,
Mississippi State, MS 39762
e-mail: cho@me.msstate.edu

Rogelio Luck

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Mississippi State University,
P.O. Box 9552,
Mississippi State, MS 39762
e-mail: luck@me.msstate.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 4, 2018; final manuscript received November 14, 2018; published online January 18, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Reza Baghaei Lakeh.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(6), 062005 (Jan 18, 2019) (15 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1690; doi: 10.1115/1.4042407 History: Received September 04, 2018; Revised November 14, 2018

This study evaluates the potential aggregate effects of net-zero energy building (NZEB) implementations on the electrical grid in a simulation-based analysis. To estimate the impact of NZEBs on the electrical grid, a simulation-based study of an office building with a grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power generation system is conducted. This study assumes that net-metering is available for NZEBs such that the excess on-site PV generation can be fed to the electrical grid. The impact of electrical energy storage (EES) within NZEBs on the electrical grid is also considered in this study. Different levels of NZEB adoption are examined: 20%, 50%, and 100% of the U.S. office building stock. Results indicate that significant penetration of NZEBs could potentially affect the current U.S. electricity demand profiles by reducing purchased electricity from the electrical grid and by increasing exported electricity to the electrical grid during peak hours. Annual electricity consumption of simulated office NZEBs in the U.S. climate locations is in the range of around 94–132 kWh/m2 yr. Comparison of hourly electricity demand profiles for the actual U.S. demand versus the calculated net-demand on a national scales indicates that the peak percentage difference of the U.S. net-electricity demand includes about 10.7%, 15.2%, and 9.3% for 100% of the U.S. NZEB stock on representative summer, transition, and winter days, respectively. Using EES within NZEBs, the peak percentage differences are reduced and shifted to the afternoon, including 8.6%, 13.3%, and 6.3% for 100% of the U.S. NZEB stock on each representative day.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Flowchart of study methodology

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Fig. 2

National aggregate electricity demand curves for each representative day

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Fig. 3

Three-dimensional view (a) and a floor plan (b) of a simulated office model

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Fig. 4

PV row spacing calculation for fixed roof-mounted and ground-mounted panels

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Fig. 5

NZEB models (a) without EES and (b) with EES

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Fig. 6

An example of hourly electricity demand profiles satisfied for NZEB on a typical sunny day: (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

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Fig. 7

Actual versus simulated office building electrical EUIs

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Fig. 8

Annual electric energy consumption versus annual on-site electricity generation for each NZEB placed in 14 climate zones

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Fig. 9

Simulated electricity demand profiles on a national scale for the representative summer day: (a) only PV and (b) PV + EES

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Fig. 10

Simulated electricity demand profiles on a national scale for the representative winter day: (a) only PV and (b) PV + EES

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Fig. 11

Simulated electricity demand profiles on a national scale for the representative transition day: (a) only PV and (b) PV + EES

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Fig. 12

Comparison of simulated net-electricity demand with NZEBs for the representative summer day: (a) only PV and (b) PV + EES

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Fig. 13

Comparison of simulated net-electricity demand with NZEBs for the representative winter day: (a) only PV and (b) PV + EES

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Fig. 14

Comparison of simulated net-electricity demand with NZEBs for the representative transition day: (a) only PV and (b) PV + EES

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