Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of Cuttings Transport in Narrow Annulus

[+] Author and Article Information
Shi Huaizhong

State Key Laboratory of Petroleum
Resources and Prospecting,
China University of Petroleum Beijing,
18 Fuxue Road, Changping District,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: shz@cup.edu.cn

Zhao Heqian

State Key Laboratory of Petroleum
Resources and Prospecting,
China University of Petroleum Beijing,
18 Fuxue Road, Changping District,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: 2017312014@student.cup.edu.cn

Ji Zhaosheng

State Key Laboratory of Petroleum
Resources and Prospecting,
China University of Petroleum Beijing,
18 Fuxue Road, Changping District,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: 2017312028@student.cup.edu.cn

Li Jingbin

State Key Laboratory of Petroleum
Resources and Prospecting,
China University of Petroleum Beijing,
18 Fuxue Road, Changping District,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: Lijingbin555@hotmail.com

Hou Xinxu

State Key Laboratory of Petroleum
Resources and Prospecting,
China University of Petroleum Beijing,
18 Fuxue Road, Changping District,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: 1043110710@qq.com

Zhou Shijie

State Key Laboratory of Petroleum
Resources and Prospecting,
China University of Petroleum Beijing,
18 Fuxue Road, Changping District,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: 1278249728@qq.com

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 12, 2018; final manuscript received December 31, 2018; published online January 30, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ray (Zhenhua) Rui.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(8), 082902 (Jan 30, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1427; doi: 10.1115/1.4042448 History: Received June 12, 2018; Revised December 31, 2018

With the development of petroleum industry, it needs an efficient drill method such as under balanced drilling (UBD) to enhance the rate of penetration (ROP). However, borehole instability is a problem that UBD must face. The coiled tubing partial underbalanced drilling (CT-PUBD) is proposed to try to solve this problem while keeping an underbalanced condition with high ROP. This paper analyzes the laws of cuttings transport in the narrow annulus focus on this new technique through the simulations and experiments. From the results of simulations, it obtains that the particle velocity declines with the increase of rotational speed and increases with the increase of flow rate. The particles become concentrated as the flow rate increases, and the high flow rate limits particles in a small area. The particle distribution undergoes a process of concentration, dispersion, and concentration as the rotational speed increases. The high rotational speed makes particles deviate from the high fluid velocity area, which causes low particle velocity. The relationships between particle velocity and rotational speed and between particle velocity and flow rate are fitted through the equations, respectively. The phenomenon of collision of particles, sinking and rising of particles, and variation of particle velocity are observed in the experiments. The error between the particle velocity in the experiment and numerical simulation is less than 8.5%. This paper is an exploratory study conducted for the cuttings transport in narrow annulus.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Rui, Z. , Peng, F. , Ling, K. , Chang, H. , Chen, G. , and Zhou, X. , 2017, “ Investigation Into the Performance of Oil and Gas Projects,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 38, pp. 12–20. [CrossRef]
Rui, Z. , Cui, K. , Wang, X. , Chun, J. , Li, Y. , Zhang, Z. , Lu, J. , Chen, G. , Zhou, X. , and Patil, S. , 2018, “ A Comprehensive Investigation on Performance of Oil and Gas Development in Nigeria: Technical and Non-Technical Analyses,” Energy, 158, pp. 666–680.
Rui, Z. , Cui, K. , Wang, X. , Lu, J. , Chen, G. , Ling, K. , and Patil, S. , 2018, “ A Quantitative Framework for Evaluating Unconventional Well Development,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 166, pp. 900–905. [CrossRef]
Anderson, E. E. , Maurer, W. C. , Hood, M. , Cooper, G. , and Cook, N. , 1990, Deep Drilling Basic Research (System Description, Vol. 4), U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, Report No. GRI-90/0265.4.
Rui, Z. , Li, C. , Peng, F. , Ling, K. , Chen, G. , Zhou, X. , and Chang, H. , 2017, “ Development of Industry Performance Metrics for Offshore Oil and Gas Project,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 39, pp. 44–53. [CrossRef]
Cui, G. , Ren, S. , Rui, Z. , Ezekiel, J. , Zhang, L. , and Wang, H. , 2018, “ The Influence of Complicated Fluid-Rock Interactions on the Geothermal Exploitation in the CO2 Plume Geothermal System,” Appl. Energy, 227, pp. 49–63. [CrossRef]
Rui, Z. , Wang, X. , Zhang, Z. , Lu, J. , Chen, G. , Zhou, X. , and Patil, S. , 2018, “ A Realistic and Integrated Model for Evaluating Oil Sands Development With Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Technology in Canada,” Appl. Energy, 213, pp. 76–91. [CrossRef]
Batako, A. D. , Babitsky, V. I. , and Halliwell, N. A. , 2004, “ Modelling of Vibro-Impact Penetration of Self-Exciting Percussive-Rotary Drill Bit,” J. Sound Vib., 271(1), pp. 209–225. [CrossRef]
Kamel, M. A. , Elkatatny, S. , Mysorewala, M. F. , Al-Majed, A. , and Elshafei, M. , 2018, “ Adaptive and Real-Time Optimal Control of Stick–Slip and Bit Wear in Autonomous Rotary Steerable Drilling,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(3), p. 032908. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. , Ni, H. , Wang, R. , Zhang, L. , and Wang, P. , 2019, “ Drag-Reduction and Resonance Problems of a Jointed Drillstring in the Presence of an Axial Excitation Tool,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 141(3), p. 032904. [CrossRef]
Fair, J. , 1981, “ Development of High-Pressure Abrasive-Jet Drilling,” J. Pet. Technol., 33(8), pp. 1379–1388. [CrossRef]
Doan, Q. T. , 2003, “ Modeling of Transient Cuttings Transport in Underbalanced Drilling (UBD),” SPE J., 8(2), pp. 160–170. [CrossRef]
Kolle, J. , and Marvin, M. , 1999, “ Hydropulses Increase Drilling Penetration Rates,” Oil Gas J., 97(13), pp. 33–37.
Wu, X. , Huang, Z. , Li, G. , Li, R. , Yan, P. , Deng, X. , Mu, K. , and Dai, X. , 2018, “ Experiment on Coal Breaking With Cryogenic Nitrogen Jet,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 169, pp. 405–415.
Cai, C. , Yang, Y. , Liu, J. , Gao, F. , Gao, Y. , and Zhang, Z. , 2018, “ Downhole Transient Flow Field and Heat Transfer Characteristics During Drilling With Liquid Nitrogen Jet,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 410(12), p. 122902.
Rui, Z. , Guo, T. , Feng, Q. , Qu, Z. , Qi, N. , and Gong, F. , 2018, “ Influence of Gravel on the Propagation Pattern of Hydraulic Fracture in the Glutenite Reservoir,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 165, pp. 627–639. [CrossRef]
Melamed, Y. , Kiselev, A. , Gelfgat, M. , Dreesen, D. , and Blacic, J. , 2000, “ Hydraulic Hammer Drilling Technology: Developments and Capabilities,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 122(1), pp. 1–7. [CrossRef]
Gupta, A. , 2012, “ Performance Optimization of Abrasive Fluid Jet for Completion and Stimulation of Oil and Gas Wells,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(2), p. 021001. [CrossRef]
Johnson, V. , Chahine, G. , Lindenmuth, W. , Conn, A. , Frederick, G. , and Giac-chino, G. , 1984, “ Cavitating and Structured Jets for Mechanical Bits to Increase Drilling Rate——Part I: Theory and Concepts,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 106(2), pp. 282–288.
Rumzan, I. , and Schmitt, D. R. , 2001, “ The Influence of Well Bore Fluid Pressure on Drilling Penetration Rates and Stress Dependent Strength,” U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), Washington, DC, July 7–10, Paper No. ARMA-01-0911. https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/ARMA-01-0911
Ying, Z. , Zhanghua, L. , Abdelal, G. F. , and Tiejun, L. , 2018, “ Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Flow Capacity and Erosion Wear of Blooey Line in Gas Drilling,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(5), p. 054501. [CrossRef]
Li, G. , Ren, W. , Meng, Y. , Wang, C. , and Wei, N. , 2014, “ Micro-Flow Kinetics Research on Water Invasion in Tight Sandstone Reservoirs,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 20, pp. 184–191. [CrossRef]
Ren, W. , Li, G. , Tian, S. , Sheng, M. , and Geng, L. , 2016, “ Analytical Modelling of Hysteretic Constitutive Relations Governing Spontaneous Imbibition of Fracturing Fluid in Shale,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 34, pp. 925–933. [CrossRef]
Bennion, D. B. , Thomas, F. B. , Bietz, R. F. , and Bennion, D. W. , 1996, “ Underbalanced Drilling: Praises and Perils,” SPE Drill. Completion, 13(4), pp. 214–222. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Z. , Xiong, Y. , and Guo, F. , 2018, “ Analysis of Wellbore Temperature Distribution and Influencing Factors During Drilling Horizontal Wells,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(9), p. 092901. [CrossRef]
Shi, H. , Ji, Z. , Zhao, H. , Chen, Z. , and Zhang, H. , 2018, “ An Experimental System for Coiled Tubing Partial Underbalanced Drilling (CT-PUBD) Technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 89(5), p. 055108. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Huaizhong, S. , Heqian, Z. , and Zhenliang, C. , 2017, “ Structure Design and Flow Field Simulation of Partial Underbalanced Drilling Reflow Device,” China Pet. Mach., 45(12), pp. 32–37 (in Chinese).
Egenti, N. B. , 2014, “ Understanding Drill-Cuttings Transportation in Deviated and Horizontal Wells,” SPE Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition, Lagos, Nigeria, Aug. 5–7, SPE Paper No. SPE-172835-MS.
Hall, H. N. , Thompson, H. , and Nuss, F. , 1950, “Ability of Drilling Mud To Lift Bit Cuttings,” J. Pet. Technol., 2(2), p. 950035-G.
O'Brien, T. , and Dobson, M. , 1985, “ Hole Cleaning: Some Field Results,” SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, New Orleans, LA, Mar. 5–7, Paper No. SPE-13442-MS.
McEachern, D. W. , 1966, “ Axial Laminar Flow of a Non-Newtonian Fluid in an Annulus,” AIChE J., 12(2), pp. 328–332. [CrossRef]
Thomas, D. G. , 1965, “ Transport Characteristics of Suspension: VIII. A Note on the Viscosity of Newtonian Suspensions of Uniform Spherical Particles,” J. Colloid Sci., 20(3), pp. 267–277. [CrossRef]
Tomren, P. H. , Iyoho, A. W. , and Azar, J. J. , 1986, “ Experimental Study of Cuttings Transport in Directional Wells,” SPE Drill. Eng., 1(1), pp. 43–56. [CrossRef]
Zhou, L. , 2008, “ Hole Cleaning During Underbalanced Drilling in Horizontal and Inclined Wellbore,” SPE Drill. Completion, 23(3), pp. 267–273. [CrossRef]
Ozbayoglu, M. , Sorgun, M. , Saasen, A. , and Svanes, K. , 2010, “ Hole Cleaning Performance of Light-Weight Drilling Fluids During Horizontal Underbalanced Drilling,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 49(4), pp. 21–26. [CrossRef]
Cruz, D. V. , Rodriguez-Hernandez, H. , Cortes-Monroy, I. , Azpeitia-Hernandez, D. , and Blanco-Galan, J. , 2000, “ Underbalanced Drilling Analysis of Naturally Fractured Mexican Fields Through 2D Multiphase Flow,” SPE International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition in Mexico, Villahermosa, Mexico, Feb. 1–3, SPE Paper No. SPE-59054-MS.
Chen, X. , Gao, D. , and Guo, B. , 2016, “ A Method for Optimizing Jet-Mill-Bit Hydraulics in Horizontal Drilling,” SPE J., 21(2), pp. 416–422. [CrossRef]
Chen, X. , Gao, D. , and Guo, B. , 2016, “ Optimal Design of Jet Mill Bit for Jet Comminuting Cuttings in Horizontal Gas Drilling Hard Formations,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 28, pp. 587–593. [CrossRef]
Richard, B. , 2003, “ Microdrill Initiative Initial Market Evaluation,” U.S. Department of Energy, Tulsa, OK, epub, pp. 9–11.
Perry, K. , 2009, “ Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling: A Low Cost Reservoir Access Technology,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 131(1), p. 013104. [CrossRef]
Sun, B. , Xiang, H. , Li, H. , and Li, X. , 2017, “ Modeling of the Critical Deposition Velocity of Cuttings in an Inclined-Slimhole Annulus,” SPE J., 22(4), pp. 1213–1224.
Popoff, B. , Popoff, B. , Braun, M. , and Braun, M. , 2007, “ A Lagrangian Approach to Dense Particulate Flows,” Sixth International Conference on Multiphase Flow, Leipzig, Germany, July 9–13.
Shih, T.-H. , 1995, “ A New κ-ε Eddy Viscosity Model for High Reynolds Number Turbulent Flows,” Comput. Fluids, 24(3), pp. 227–238. [CrossRef]
Reynolds, W. C. , 1987, Fundamentals of Turbulence for Turbulence Modeling and Simulation, AGARD Report No. ADP005793. https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/p005793.pdf
Kim, S. E. , Choudhury, D. , and Patel, B. , 1999, Computations of Complex Turbulent Flows Using the Commercial Code Fluent, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Ozbayoglu, M. E. , Miska, S. Z. , Reed, T. , and Takach, N. , 2004, “ Analysis of the Effects of Major Drilling Parameters on Cuttings Transport Efficiency for High-Angle Wells in Coiled Tubing Drilling Operations,” SPE/ICoTa Coiled Tubing Conference and Exhibition, Houston, TX, Mar. 23–24, SPE Paper No. SPE-89334-MS.
Qingsheng, M. , Xinqing, Z. , and Caixuan, G. , 2001, “ Drilling Fluid Technology for Underbalanced Drilling in Tahe Oilfield,” Drill. Fluid Completion Fluid, 18(2), pp. 30–32 (in Chinese).


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Coiled tubing partial underbalanced drilling schematic diagram (a) diagram of CT-PUBD and (b) backflow controller

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Drilling fluid circulation process and working principle of the packer (left: packer sealing status and right: packer unsealing status)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Geometric model and boundary condition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Grid-independent analysis

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Particle velocity varies with rotational speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Particle velocity varies with flow rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The distribution of radial velocity of particles under the rational speed of 0 rpm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Radial velocity distribution of under the fluid velocity of 1.0 m/s and normalized velocity distribution of fluid under 0 rpm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Flow chart of the experimental procedure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Aluminum balls in the experiment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Experimental phenomena: (a) sinking of particles (rotational speed: 55 rpm, time interval: 0.11 s), (b) collision of particles (rotational speed: 0 rpm, time interval: 0.048 s), and (c) change of particles z velocity (rotational speed: 133 rpm, time interval: 0.07 s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Distribution of particles at 10 s in the simulations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison of experiment and simulation



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In