Research Papers: Energy Storage/Systems

Thermal Design and Analysis of a Solid-State Grid-Tied Thermal Energy Storage for Hybrid Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Khashayar Hakamian, Kevin R. Anderson, Maryam Shafahi

Mechanical Engineering Department,
California State Polytechnic University Pomona,
Pomona, CA 91768

Reza Baghaei Lakeh

Mechanical Engineering Department,
California State Polytechnic University
Pomona, Pomona, CA 91768
e-mail: rblakeh@cpp.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 7, 2018; final manuscript received February 11, 2019; published online March 11, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Heejin Cho.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(6), 061903 (Mar 11, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1697; doi: 10.1115/1.4042917 History: Received September 07, 2018; Revised February 11, 2019

Power overgeneration by renewable sources combined with less dispatchable conventional power plants introduces the power grid to a new challenge, i.e., instability. The stability of the power grid requires constant balance between generation and demand. A well-known solution to power overgeneration is grid-scale energy storage. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) has been utilized for grid-scale energy storage for a few decades. However, conventional diabatic CAES systems are difficult and expensive to construct and maintain due to their high-pressure operating condition. Hybrid compressed air energy storage (HCAES) systems are introduced as a new variant of old CAES technology to reduce the cost of energy storage using compressed air. The HCAES system split the received power from the grid into two subsystems. A portion of the power is used to compress air, as done in conventional CAES systems. The rest of the electric power is converted to heat in a high-temperature thermal energy storage (TES) component using Joule heating. A computational approach was adopted to investigate the performance of the proposed TES system during a full charge/storage/discharge cycle. It was shown that the proposed design can be used to receive 200 kW of power from the grid for 6 h without overheating the resistive heaters. The discharge computations show that the proposed geometry of the TES, along with a control strategy for the flow rate, can provide a 74-kW microturbine of the HCAES with the minimum required temperature, i.e., 1144 K at 0.6 kg/s of air flow rate for 6 h.

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Fig. 1

Conventional adiabatic compressed air energy storage system (A-CAES) diagram

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Fig. 2

Hybrid compressed air energy storage diagram

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Fig. 3

Isometric view of the HTES design

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Fig. 4

High-temperature thermal energy storage diagram with variable mass flow valve and bypass loop

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Fig. 5

High-temperature thermal energy storage inlet face and side view

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Fig. 6

(a) Isometric and (b) front view of the solution domain for discharge computations

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Fig. 7

(a) Discharge geometry with grid and (b) air passage grid

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Fig. 8

Grid refinement study results

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Fig. 9

Volume-average temperature of top half three heaters and concrete

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Fig. 10

Thermal energy storage temperature contour and the end of charge cycle

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Fig. 11

Axis line temperatures in x, y, and z directions

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Fig. 12

Total average air exit temperature with different air mass flowrates during discharge cycle

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Fig. 13

Mass flow rate of HTES and bypass loop during discharge cycle for total mass flow rates of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 kg/s

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Fig. 14

Distribution of temperature at the end of discharge cycle for m˙tot = 0.4 kg/s on the (a) front (air inlet) and (b) back (air exit) surfaces of the HTES



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