0
Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Numerical Simulation of Natural Gas Pipeline Transients

[+] Author and Article Information
Abdoalmonaim S. M. Alghlam

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Belgrade,
Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia
e-mail: utmabdo73@gmail.com

Vladimir D. Stevanovic

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Belgrade,
Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia
e-mail: vstevanovic@mas.bg.ac.rs

Elmukhtar A. Elgazdori

Mellitah Oil & Gas Company,
Tripoli, Libya
e-mail: ghazduri@yahoo.com

Milos Banjac

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Belgrade,
Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia
e-mail: banjac.j.milos@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received November 27, 2018; final manuscript received April 3, 2019; published online April 22, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Reza Sheikhi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(10), 102002 (Apr 22, 2019) (14 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1862; doi: 10.1115/1.4043436 History: Received November 27, 2018; Accepted April 07, 2019

Simulations of natural gas pipeline transients provide an insight into a pipeline capacity to deliver gas to consumers or to accumulate gas from source wells during various abnormal conditions and under variable consumption rates. This information is used for the control of gas pressure and for planning repairs in a timely manner. Therefore, a numerical model and a computer code have been developed for the simulation of natural gas transients in pipelines. The developed approach is validated by simulations of test cases from the open literature. Detailed analyses of both slow and fast gas flow transients are presented. Afterward, the code is applied to the simulation of transients in a long natural gas transmission pipeline. The simulated scenarios cover common operating conditions and abrupt disturbances. The simulations of the abnormal conditions show a significant accumulation capacity and inertia of the gas within the pipeline, which enables gas packing and consumers supply during the day time period. Since the numerical results are obtained under isothermal gas transient conditions, an analytical method for the evaluation of the difference between isothermal and nonisothermal predictions is derived. It is concluded that the nonisothermal transient effects can be neglected in engineering predictions of natural gas packing in long pipelines during several hours. The prescribed isothermal temperature should be a few degrees higher than the soil temperature due to the heat generation by friction on the pipelines wall and heat transfer from the gas to the surrounding soil.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

International Energy Agency, Key World Energy Statistics, Paris, https://webstore.iea.org/key-world-energy-statistics-2018. Accessed Nov. 27, 2018.
Ma, S., Zhou, D., Zhang, H., Weng, S., and Shao, T., 2018, “Modeling and Operational Optimization Based on Energy Hubs for Complex Energy Networks With Distributed Energy Resources,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 141(2), p. 022002. [CrossRef]
Angerer, M., Djukow, M., Riedl, K., Gleis, S., and Spliethoff, H., 2018, “Simulation of Cogeneration-Combined Cycle Plant Flexibilization by Thermochemical Energy Storage,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(2), p. 020909. [CrossRef]
Teng, B., Cheng, L., Huang, S., and Li, H. A., 2018, “Production Forecasting for Shale Gas Reservoirs With Fast Marching-Succession of Steady States Method,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(3), p. 032913. [CrossRef]
Wei, N., Li, C., Li, C., Xie, H., Du, Z., Zhang, Q., and Zeng, F., 2018, “Short-Term Forecasting of Natural Gas Consumption Using Factor Selection Algorithm and Optimized Support Vector Regression,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 141(3), p. 032701. [CrossRef]
Mohitpour, M., Thompson, W., and Asante, B., 1996, “The Importance of Dynamic Simulation on the Design and Optimization of Pipeline Transmission Systems,” Proceedings of the 1st International Pipeline Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, June 9–13, pp. 1183–1188.
Stevanovic, V., 2008, “Security of Gas Pipelines,” Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Security and Reliability of Damaged Structures and Defective Materials. G. Pluvinage, and A. Sedmak, eds., Portoroz, Slovenia, Oct. 19–22.
Zuo, L., Jiang, F., Jin, B., Zhang, L., and Xue, T., 2015, “Value Settings for the Rate of Pressure Drop of Automatic Line-Break Control Valves in Natural gas Pipelines,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 26, pp. 803–809. [CrossRef]
Zhang, X., Wu, C., and Zuo, L., 2016, “Minimizing Fuel Consumption of a Gas Pipeline in Transient States by Dynamic Programming,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 28, pp. 193–203. [CrossRef]
Khanmirza, E., Madoliat, R., and Pourfard, A., 2018, “Transient Optimization of Natural Gas Networks Using Intelligent Algorithms,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 141(3), p. 032901. [CrossRef]
Issa, R. I., and Spalding, D. B., 1972, “Unsteady One-Dimensional Compressible Frictional Flow With Heat Transfer,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 14(6), pp. 365–369. [CrossRef]
Thorley, A. R. T., and Tiley, C. H., 1987, “Unsteady and Transient Flow of Compressible Fluids in Pipelines—A Review of Theoretical and Some Experimental Studies,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 8(1), pp. 3–15. [CrossRef]
Price, G. R., McBrien, R. K., Rizopoulos, S. N., and Golshan, H., 1999, “Evaluating the Effective Friction Factor and Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient During Unsteady Pipeline Operation,” ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng., 121(2), pp. 131–136. [CrossRef]
Osiadacz, A. J., 1996, “Different Transient Models—Limitations, Advantages and Disadvantages,” Proceedings of the Pipeline Simulation Interest Group, PSIG Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Oct. 23–25, pp. 1–25.
Osiadacz, A. J., and Chaczykowski, M., 2001, “Comparison of Isothermal and Non-Isothermal Pipeline Gas Flow Models,” Chem. Eng. J. 81(1-3), pp. 41–51. [CrossRef]
Abbaspour, M., and Chapman, K. S., 2008, “Non-Isothermal Transient Flow in Natural Gas Pipeline,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 75(3), p. 031018. [CrossRef]
Chaczykowski, M., 2010, “Transient Flow in Natural Gas Pipeline—The Effect of Pipeline Thermal Model,” Appl. Math. Model., 34(4), pp. 1051–1067. [CrossRef]
Helgaker, F. J., Oosterkamp, A., Langelandsvik, L. I., and Ytrehus, T., 2014, “Validation of 1D Flow Model for High Pressure Offshore Natural gas Pipelines,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 16, pp. 44–56. [CrossRef]
Pambour, K. A., Bolado-Lavin, R., and Dijkema, G. P. J., 2016, “An Integrated Transient Model for Simulating the Operation of Natural Gas Transport Systems,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 28, pp. 672–690. [CrossRef]
Wylie, E. B., Streeter, V. L., and Stoner, M. A., 1974, “Unsteady-State Natural-Gas Calculations in Complex Pipe Systems,” Soc. Petrol. Eng. J., 14(1), pp. 35–43. [CrossRef]
Wulff, W., 1987, “Computational Methods for Multiphase Flow,” Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Two-Phase Flow Fundamentals. R.T. Lahey ed., New York, March 16–20, pp. 1–138.
Alghlam, A. S., 2012, “Numerical Scheme for Modeling Natural Gas Flow in Cross-Border Pipelines,” M.E. thesis, University of Technology, Johor, Malaysia.
White, F. M., 1999, Viscous Fluid Flow, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Reddy, H. P., Narasimhan, S., and Bhallamudi, S. M., 2006, “Simulation and State Estimation of Transient Flow in Gas Pipeline Networks Using a Transfer Function Model,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 45(11), pp. 3853–3863. [CrossRef]
Alamian, R., Behbahani-Nejad, M., and Ghanbarzadeh, A., 2012, “A State Space Model for Transient Flow Simulation in Natural Gas Pipelines,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 9, pp. 51–59. [CrossRef]
Taylor, T. D., and Wood, N. E., 1962, “A Computer Simulation of Gas Flow in Long Pipelines,” Soc. Petrol. Eng., 107, pp. 297–302. [CrossRef]
Zhou, J., and Adewumi, M. A., 1996, “Simulation of Transient Flow in Natural Gas Pipelines,” Pennsylvania State University, Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Report No. GRIPA 16802.
Tentis, E., Margaris, D., and Papanikas, D., 2003, “Transient Gas Flow Simulation Using an Adaptive Method of Lines,” C. R. Mecanique, 331(7), pp. 481–487. [CrossRef]
Behbahani-Nejad, M., and Bagheri, A., 2008, “A matlab Simulink Library for Transient Flow Simulation of Gas Networks, World Academy of Science,” Eng. Technol. 2(7), pp. 139–145.
Osiadacz, A. J., 1987, Simulation and Analysis of Gas Networks, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston.
Ke, S. L., and Ti, H. C., 2000, “Transient Analysis of Isothermal Gas Flow in Pipeline Network,” Chem. Eng. J., 76(2), pp. 169–177. [CrossRef]
Behbahani-Nejad, M., and Shekari, Y., 2010, “The Accuracy and Efficiency of a Reduced-Order Model for Transient Flow Analysis in Gas Pipelines,” J. Petrol. Sci. Eng., 73(1–2), pp. 13–19. [CrossRef]
Dempsey, R. J., Rachford, H. H., and Nolen, J. S., 1972, “Gas Supply Analysis-States of the Arts,” Proceedings of the AGA Conference, San Francisco, CA, May 22–26.
Campbell, J. M., 2001, Gas Conditioning and Processing Vol. 1: The Basic Principles, 8th ed., Campbell Petroleum Series, Norman, Oklahoma.
Rohsenow, W. M., and Hartnett, J. P., 1973, Handbook of Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill Book, New York.
Badache, M., Eslami-Nejad, P., Ouzzane, M., Aidoun, Z., and Lamarche, L., 2016, “A New Modeling Approach for Improved Ground Temperature Profile Determination,” Renew. Energy, 85, pp. 436–444. [CrossRef]
Jia, W., Li, C., and Wu, X., 2014, “Internal Surface Absolute Roughness for Large-Diameter Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines,” Oil Gas Eur. Mag., 40(4), pp. 211–213.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Space–time coordinate system and characteristic paths

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Pipes in a junction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Specified volume flow rate at the pipeline outlet, x = 8000 m (case 1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Calculated volume flow rates at the pipeline inlet, x = 0 m (case 1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Specified daily change of the mass flow rate at the pipeline outlet (case 2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Calculated pressure at the pipeline outlet (case 2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Gas pipeline network (case 3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Gas demand versus time for nodes 2 and 3 of the simulated network (case 3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Calculated pressure in node 2 of the network (case 3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Calculated pressure in node 3 of the network (case 3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Boundary conditions and geometry of the pipeline in case 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Pressure history at the closed end of the pipeline (case 4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Pressure history at the inlet of the pipeline (case 4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Gas volume flow rate at the pipeline midpoint (case 4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Pressure history at the closed end of the pipeline obtained with different number of numerical nodes (grid refinement test for case 4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Main gas pipeline of the Western Libya Gas Project

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Measured pressure at the main gas pipeline inlet in the Wafa Desert Plant

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Measured volume flow rates at the delivery outlets in the Mellitah Complex and in the Ar Ruways Gecol TPP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Measured and calculated pressure at the transmission pipeline outlet in the Mellitah Complex

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Flow rate behavior in the gas pipeline of the Western Libya Gas Project during the gas supply trip

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Pressure history in the gas pipeline of the Western Libya Gas Project during the gas supply trip

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Flow rate behavior in the gas pipeline of the Western Libya Gas Project during the trip of gas delivery to the Mellitah Complex

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Pressure history behavior in the gas pipeline of the Western Libya Gas Project during the trip of gas delivery to the Mellitah Complex

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Flow rate behavior in the gas pipeline of the Western Libya Gas Project during the trip of total gas delivery

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Pressure behavior in the gas pipeline of the Western Libya Gas Project during the trip of total gas delivery

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 26

Velocity change along the pipeline at the initial steady state and 5 and 11 h after the trip of total gas delivery

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 27

Temperature change along the entrance part of the long transmission gas pipeline for two heat conduction coefficient values

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 28

Gas control volume in the pipeline

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In