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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Investigation of A Low Emission Liquid Fueled Reverse-Cross-Flow Combustor

[+] Author and Article Information
Preetam Sharma

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, UP, India
e-mail: preetams@iitk.ac.in

Naman Jain

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, UP, India
e-mail: jnaman@iitk.ac.in

Vaibhav Kumar Arghode

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, UP, India
e-mail: varghode@iitk.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received January 31, 2019; final manuscript received April 3, 2019; published online April 18, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ashwani K. Gupta.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(10), 102202 (Apr 18, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-19-1062; doi: 10.1115/1.4043437 History: Received January 31, 2019; Accepted April 07, 2019

The investigated combustor employs injection of liquid fuel (ethanol) into the strong cross-flow of air using a round tube to achieve effective fuel atomization in non-premixed mode of operation. The reverse-flow configuration (air injection from the exit end) allows effective internal product gas recirculation and stabilization of the reaction zone. This apparently suppresses near-stoichiometric reactions and hot spot regions resulting in low pollutant (NOx and CO) emissions in the non-premixed mode. The combustor was tested at thermal intensity variation from 19 to 39 MW/m3 atm with direct injection (DI) of liquid fuel in cross-flow of air injection with two fuel injection diameters of 0.5 mm (D1) and 0.8 mm (D2). The combustion process was found to be stable with NOx emissions of 8 ppm (for D1) and 9 ppm (for D2), the CO emissions were 90 ppm for D1 and 120 ppm for D2, at an equivalence ratio (ϕ) of 0.7. Macroscopic spray properties of the fuel jet in cross-flow were investigated using high-speed imaging techniques in unconfined and nonreacting conditions. It was found that the fuel jet in smaller fuel injection diameter (D1) case penetrated farther than that in D2 case due to higher fuel injection momentum, thus possibly resulting in a finer spray and better fuel-oxidizer mixing, and in turn leading to lower CO and NOx emissions in the D1 case as compared with the D2 case.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Photograph and (b)–(d) schematics of the reverse cross-flow combustor

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Fig. 2

Schematics of the experimental setup for (a) combustor performance and (b) atomization study

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Fig. 3

Averaged spray image with (a) origin (O) and jet centerline trajectory and (b) spray outer edges

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Fig. 4

Consecutive images depicting ligament formation for D1 case at ϕ = 0.5

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Fig. 5

Primary breakup characteristics for D1 and D2 cases at various ϕ cases

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Fig. 6

Jet centerline trajectories for (a) ϕ = 0.7 and (b) ϕ = 0.8

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Fig. 7

Spray outer boundaries for (a) ϕ = 0.7 and (b) ϕ = 0.8

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Fig. 8

Global flame images for (a) D1 and (b) D2 diameter cases at various ϕ

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Fig. 9

OH* images for (a) D1 and (b) D2 cases at various ϕ

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Fig. 12

Lean operational limit

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