0
Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Evolution of Microexplosion Phenomenon in Parent–Child Droplets of Water in Biodiesel Emulsions Enhanced by Different Surfactant Dosages and Hydrophilic–Lipophilic Balance Values

[+] Author and Article Information
Z. A. Abdul Karim

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Centre for Automotive Research and Electric Mobility (CAREM),
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS,
Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
e-mail: ambri@utp.edu.my

Mohammed Yahaya Khan

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Technology,
Jubail Industrial College,
P.O. Box 10099, Jubail Industrial City 31961, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
e-mail: mohammedyahayakhan@yahoo.com

A. Rashid A. Aziz

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Centre for Automotive Research and Electric Mobility (CAREM),
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS,
Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
e-mail: rashid@utp.edu.my

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received December 4, 2018; final manuscript received April 9, 2019; published online May 8, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Stephen A. Ciatti.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(10), 102204 (May 08, 2019) (13 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1872; doi: 10.1115/1.4043553 History: Received December 04, 2018; Accepted April 09, 2019

This experimental study endeavors to investigate the evolution of microexplosion phenomenon of water in biodiesel emulsion droplets with the base fuel (B5) containing 95% diesel and 5% of palm oil methyl ester (POME). Parameters such as water content varied from 9%, 12%, and 15%, surfactant dosages of 5%, 10%, and 15% and the hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) values of 6, 7, 8, and 9 were varied to study its impact on microexplosion phenomenon. Three different sizes of emulsion droplets of approximately Ø2.8 mm, Ø2.2 mm, and Ø0.3 mm were visualized for the evolution of microexplosion phenomenon under the Leidenfrost effect using hot plate as a heat source. The evolution of microexplosion phenomenon of parent droplets, puffing behavior, and waiting time was visualized with high-resolution images. It was observed that the coalescence process was the dominating factor in inducing the microexplosion, and the coalescence process can either be advanced or be delayed by the surfactant dosage. The waiting time for the microexplosion was found to be influenced by the surfactant dosage and the droplet size. The rate of phase change of emulsions and puffing was found to be influenced by the surfactant dosage. By analyzing the postbehavior of the child droplets formed after the microexplosion of the parent droplet, it was observed that the child droplets undergo a series of puffing process and eventually microexplosion phenomenon also. The size of the parent droplets has a significant influence on the size of the child droplet.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Shinjo, J., Xia, J., Ganippa, L., and Megaritis, A., 2014, “Physics of Puffing and Microexplosion of Emulsion Fuel Droplets,” Phys. Fluids, 26, p. 103302. [CrossRef]
Agarwal, A. K., Park, S., Dhar, A., Lee, C. S., Park, S., Gupta, T., and Gupta, N. K., 2018, “Review of Experimental and Computational Studies on Spray, Combustion, Performance, and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel Fueled Engines,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140, p. 120801. [CrossRef]
Debbarma, S., and Misra, R., 2017, “Effects of Iron Nanoparticles Blended Biodiesel on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139, p. 042212. [CrossRef]
Ivanov, V. M., and Nefedov, P., 1965, Experimental Investigation of the Combustion Process of Natural and Emulsified Liquid Fuels, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.
Clercq, P., Noll, B., and Aigner, M., 2005, Modeling Evaporation and Secondary Atomization of Water-in-Multicomponent Oil Emulsion Droplets, DLR, German Aerospace Center, Institute of Combustion Technology, Stuttgart, Germany.
Fu, W. B., Hou, L. Y., Wang, L., and Ma, F. H., 2002, “A Unified Model for the Micro-Explosion of Emulsified Droplets of Oil and Water,” Fuel Process. Technol., 79, pp. 107–119. [CrossRef]
Kimoto, K., Owashi, Y., and Omae, Y., 1986, “The Vaporizing Behavior of the Fuel Droplet of Water-in-Oil Emulsion on the Hot Surface,” Bull. JSME, 29, pp. 4247–4255. [CrossRef]
Avulapati, M. M., Ganippa, L. C., Xia, J., and Megaritis, A., 2016, “Puffing and Micro-Explosion of Diesel–Biodiesel–Ethanol Blends,” Fuel, 166, pp. 59–66. [CrossRef]
Califano, V., Calabria, R., and Massoli, P., 2014, “Experimental Evaluation of the Effect of Emulsion Stability on Micro-Explosion Phenomena for Water-in-Oil Emulsions,” Fuel, 117, pp. 87–94. [CrossRef]
Morozumi, Y., and Saito, Y., 2010, “Effect of Physical Properties on Microexplosion Occurrence in Water-in-Oil Emulsion Droplets,” Energy Fuels, 24, pp. 1854–1859. [CrossRef]
Watanabe, H., Harada, T., Matsushita, Y., Aoki, H., and Miura, T., 2009, “The Characteristics of Puffing of the Carbonated Emulsified Fuel,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52, pp. 3676–3684. [CrossRef]
Suzuki, Y., Harada, T., Watanabe, H., Shoji, M., Matsushita, Y., Aoki, H., and Miura, T., 2011, “Visualization of Aggregation Process of Dispersed Water Droplets and the Effect of Aggregation on Secondary Atomization of Emulsified Fuel Droplets,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33, pp. 2063–2070. [CrossRef]
Mura, E., Josset, C., Loubar, K., Huchet, G., and Bellettre, J., 2010, “Effect of Dispersed Water Droplet Size in Microexplosion Phenomenon for Water in Oil Emulsion,” Atomization Sprays, 20, pp. 791–799. [CrossRef]
Khan, M. Y., Karim, Z. A., Aziz, A. R. A., and Tan, I. M., 2017, “A Case Study on the Influence of Selected Parameters on Microexplosion Behavior of Water in Biodiesel Emulsion Droplets,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139, p. 022203. [CrossRef]
Tarlet, D., Mura, E., Josset, C., Bellettre, J., Allouis, C., and Massoli, P., 2014, “Distribution of Thermal Energy of Child-Droplets Issued From an Optimal Micro-Explosion,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 77, pp. 1043–1054. [CrossRef]
Chen, G., and Tao, D., 2005, “An Experimental Study of Stability of Oil–Water Emulsion,” Fuel Process. Technol., 86, pp. 499–508. [CrossRef]
Solans, C., Izquierdo, P., Nolla, J., Azemar, N., and Garcia-Celma, M., 2005, “Nano-emulsions,” Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci., 10, pp. 102–110. [CrossRef]
Yahaya Khan, M., Abdul Karim, Z. A., Abd Aziz, A. R., Heikal, M., and Crua, C., 2016, “Puffing and Microexplosion Behavior of Water in Pure Diesel Emulsion Droplets During Leidenfrost Effect,” Combust. Sci. Technol., pp. 1186–1197. 10.1080/00102202.2016.1275593
Abu-Zaid, M., 2004, “An Experimental Study of the Evaporation Characteristics of Emulsified Liquid Droplets,” Heat Mass Transf., 40, pp. 737–741.
Tanaka, H., Kadota, T., Segawa, D., Nakaya, S., and Yamasaki, H., 2006, “Effect of Ambient Pressure on Micro-Explosion of an Emulsion Droplet Evaporating on a Hot Surface,” JSME Int. J. Ser. B, 49, pp. 1345–1350. [CrossRef]
Mura, E., Massoli, P., Josset, C., Loubar, K., and Bellettre, J., 2012, “Study of the Micro-Explosion Temperature of Water in Oil Emulsion Droplets During the Leidenfrost Effect,” Exp. Therm. Fluid. Sci., 43, pp. 63–70. [CrossRef]
Yahaya Khan, M., Abdul Karim, Z., Aziz, A. R. A., and Tan, I. M., 2016, “Experimental Study on Influence of Surfactant Dosage on Micro Explosion Occurrence in Water in Diesel Emulsion,” Appl. Mech. Mater., 819, pp. 287–291. [CrossRef]
Jeong, I., Lee, K.-H., and Kim, J., 2008, “Characteristics of Auto-Ignition and Micro-Explosion Behavior of a Single Droplet of Water-in-Fuel,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 22, pp. 148–156. [CrossRef]
Song, M.-G., Cho, S.-H., Kim, J.-Y., and Kim, J.-D., 2002, “Novel Evaluation Method for the Water-in-Oil (W/O) Emulsion Stability by Turbidity Ratio Measurements,” Korean J. Chem. Eng., 19, pp. 425–430. [CrossRef]
Urbina-Villalba, G., and García-Sucre, M., 2000, “Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Emulsion Stability,” Langmuir, 16, pp. 7975–7985. [CrossRef]
Ochoterena, R., Lif, A., Nydén, M., Andersson, S., and Denbratt, I., 2010, “Optical Studies of Spray Development and Combustion of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion and Microemulsion Fuels,” Fuel, 89, pp. 122–132. [CrossRef]
Khan, M. Y., Abdul Karim, Z. A., Aziz, A. R. A., and Tan, I. M., 2014, “Experimental Investigation of Microexplosion Occurrence in Water in Diesel Emulsion Droplets During the Leidenfrost Effect,” Energy Fuels, 28, pp. 7079–7084. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

A schematic diagram of the experimental setup: (1) high-speed camera, (2) thermocouple for hot plate, (3) hot plate, (4) ceramic heater, (5) temperature controller for hot plate, (6) NI controller, (7) and (8) PC for data acquisition and image processing, (9) light source for backlight illumination, and (10) light source for front light illumination

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Stability observation of the emulsions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Water droplet distribution in the emulsions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Sauter mean diameter of the emulsions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Evolution of microexplosion of emulsions for every 0.5 s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Coalescence process of WiBE-21

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Puffing of Ø2.2 mm emulsion droplet at 8000 fps

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Puffing of child droplet after microexplosion of a parent droplet

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Microexplosion behavior of child droplets

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Puffing frequency of Ø2.8 mm and Ø 2.2 mm emulsion droplets

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Microexplosion time of WiBE with 5% surfactant dosage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Microexplosion time of WiBE with 10% surfactant dosage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Waiting time comparison of emulsion droplets

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Microexplosion time of WiBE with 15% surfactant dosage

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In