Special Section on 2018 Clean Energy

Development of a Continuous Fluidized Bed Reactor for Thermochemical Energy Storage Application

[+] Author and Article Information
Manuel Wuerth

Institute for Energy Systems,
Technical University of Munich,
Boltzmannstr. 15,
Garching 85748, Germany
e-mail: manuel.wuerth@tum.de

Moritz Becker

Institute for Energy Systems,
Technical University of Munich,
Boltzmannstr. 15,
Garching 85748, Germany

Peter Ostermeier, Stephan Gleis

Institute for Energy Systems,
Technical University of Munich,
Boltzmannstr. 15,
Garching 85748, Germany

Hartmut Spliethoff

Institute for Energy Systems,
Technical University of Munich,
Boltzmannstr. 15,
Garching 85748, Germany;
Bavarian Center for Applied Energy
Research (ZAE Bayern),
Walther-Meissner-Street 6,
Garching 85748, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 19, 2018; final manuscript received April 21, 2019; published online May 21, 2019. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(7), 070710 (May 21, 2019) (6 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1551; doi: 10.1115/1.4043629 History: Received July 19, 2018; Revised April 21, 2019

Thermochemical energy storage (TCES) represents one of the most promising energy storage technologies, currently investigated. It uses the heat of reaction of reversible reaction systems and stands out due to the high energy density of its storage materials combined with the possibility of long-term storage with little to no heat losses. Gas–solid reactions, in particular the reaction systems CaCO3/CaO, CaO/Ca(OH)2 and MgO/Mg(OH)2 are of key interest in current research. Until now, fixed bed reactors are the state of the art for TCES systems. However, fluidized bed reactors offer significant advantages for scale-up of the system: the improved heat and mass transfer allows for higher charging/discharging power, whereas the favorable, continuous operation mode enables a decoupling of storage power and capacity. Even though gas–solid fluidized beds are being deployed for wide range of industrial operations, the fluidization of cohesive materials, such as the aforementioned metal oxides/hydroxides, still represents a sparsely investigated field. The consequent lack of knowledge of physical, chemical, and technical parameters of the processes on hand is currently a hindering aspect for a proper design and scale-up of fluidized bed reactors for MW applications of TCES. Therefore, the experimental research at Technical University of Munich (TUM) focuses on a comprehensive approach to address this problem. Preliminary experimental work has been carried out on a fixed bed reactor to cover the topic of chemical cycle stability of storage materials. In order to investigate the fluidization behavior of the bulk material, a fluidized bed cold model containing a heat flux probe and operating at atmospheric conditions has been deployed. The experimental results have identified the heat input and output as the most influential aspect for both the operation and a possible scale-up of such a TCES system. The decisive parameter for the heat input and output is the heat transfer coefficient between immersed heat exchangers and the fluidized bed. This coefficient strongly depends on the quality of fluidization, which in turn is directly related to the geometry of the gas distributor plate. At TUM, a state-of-the-art pilot fluidized bed reactor is being commissioned to further investigate the aforementioned aspects. This reactor possesses an overall volume of 100 L with the expanded bed volume taking up 30 L. Two radiation furnaces (64 kW) are used to heat the reactor. The heat of reaction of the exothermal hydration reaction is removed by water, evaporating in a cooling coil, immersed in the fluidized bed. Fluidization is being achieved with a mixture of steam and nitrogen at operating temperatures of up to 700 °C and operating pressures between −1 and 6 bar(g). The particle size is in the range of d50 = 20 μm. While initial experiments on this reactor focus on optimal operating and material parameters, the long-term goal is to establish correlations for model design and scale-up purposes.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


BMWi, 2018, “ Nationales Reformprogramm, Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi),” Frankfurt, Germany, Accessed May 11, 2019, https://www.bmwi.de/Redaktion/DE/Publikationen/Europa/nationales-reformprogramm-2018.html
Bundestag, D. , 2011, “ Bundestag Beschließt Atomausstieg und Energiewende,” Berlin, Accessed May 11, 2019, https://www.bundestag.de/dokumente/textarchiv/2011/34938007_kw26_de_energiewende-205804
Sterner, M. , and Stadler, I. , 2014, “ Energiespeicher-Bedarf, Technologien, Integration,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Ervin, G. , 1977, “ Solar Heat Storage Using Chemical Reactions,” J. Solid State Chem., 22(1), pp. 51–61. [CrossRef]
Ervin, G. , 1976, “ Method of Storing and Releasing Thermal Energy,” Patent No. US3973552.
Rosemary, J. K. , Bauerle, G. L. , and Springer, T. H. , 1979, “ Solar Energy Storage Using Reversible Hydration-Dehydration of CaO-Ca(OH)2,” J. Energy, 3(6), pp. 321–322. [CrossRef]
Bayon, A. , Bader, R. , Jafarian, M. , Fedunik-Hofman, L. , Sun, Y. , Hinkley, J. , Miller, S. , and Lipiński, W. , 2018, “ Techno-Economic Assessment of Solid–Gas Thermochemical Energy Storage Systems for Solar Thermal Power Applications,” Energy, 149, pp. 473–484. [CrossRef]
Sakellariou, K. G. , Criado, Y. A. , Tsongidis, N. I. , Karagiannakis, G. , and Konstandopoulos, A. G. , 2017, “ Multi-Cyclic Evaluation of Composite CaO-Based Structured Bodies for Thermochemical Heat Storage Via the CaO/Ca(OH)2 Reaction Scheme,” Sol. Energy, 146, pp. 65–78. [CrossRef]
Pardo, P. , Deydier, A. , Anxionnaz-Minvielle, Z. , Rougé, S. , Cabassud, M. , and Cognet, P. , 2014, “ A Review on High Temperature Thermochemical Heat Energy Storage,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 32, pp. 591–610. [CrossRef]
Cabeza, L. F. , Solé, A. , Fontanet, X. , Barreneche, C. , Jové, A. , Gallas, M. , Prieto, C. , and Fernández, A. I. , 2017, “ Thermochemical Energy Storage by Consecutive Reactions for Higher Efficient Concentrated Solar Power Plants (CSP): Proof of Concept,” Appl. Energy, 185(Part 1), pp. 836–845. [CrossRef]
Schmidt, M. , and Linder, M. , 2017, “ Power Generation Based on the Ca(OH)2/CaO Thermochemical Storage System—Experimental Investigation of Discharge Operation Modes in Lab Scale and Corresponding Conceptual Process Design,” Appl. Energy, 203, pp. 594–607. [CrossRef]
Angerer, M. , Djukow, M. , Riedl, K. , Gleis, S. , and Spliethoff, H. , 2018, “ Simulation of Cogeneration-Combined Cycle Plant Flexibilization by Thermochemical Energy Storage,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140, p. 20909. [CrossRef]
Kingery, W. D. , Francl, J. , Coble, R. L. , and Vasilos, T. , 1954, “ Thermal Conductivity: X, Data for Several Pure Oxide Materials Corrected to Zero Porosity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 37(2), pp. 107–110. [CrossRef]
Kanzawa, A. , and Arai, Y. , 1981, “ Thermal Energy Storage by the Chemical Reaction Augmentation of Heat Transfer and Thermal Decomposition in the CaOCa(OH)2 Powder,” Sol. Energy, 27(4), pp. 289–294. [CrossRef]
Schmidt, M. , Szczukowski, C. , Roßkopf, C. , Linder, M. , and Wörner, A. , 2014, “ Experimental Results of a 10 kW High Temperature Thermochemical Storage Reactor Based on Calcium Hydroxide,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 62(2), pp. 553–559. [CrossRef]
Schaube, F. , Koch, L. , Wörner, A. , and Müller-Steinhagen, H. , 2012, “ A Thermodynamic and Kinetic Study of the de- and Rehydration of Ca(OH)2 at High H2O Partial Pressures for Thermo-Chemical Heat Storage,” Thermochim. Acta, 538, pp. 9–20. [CrossRef]
Pan, Z. H. , and Zhao, C. Y. , 2017, “ Gas–Solid Thermochemical Heat Storage Reactors for High-Temperature Applications,” Energy, 130, pp. 155–173. [CrossRef]
F. Schaube , A. Wörner , and H. Müller-Steinhagen , ed., 2009, “ High Temperature Heat Storage Using Gas-Solid Reactions,” EFFSTOCK 2009—11th International Conference on Energy Storage, Stockholm, Sweden, June. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225002614_HIGH_TEMPERATURE_HEAT_STORAGE_USING_GAS-SOLIDREACTIONS
Yan, J. , and Zhao, C. Y. , 2016, “ Experimental Study of CaO/Ca(OH)2 in a Fixed-Bed Reactor for Thermochemical Heat Storage,” Appl. Energy, 175, pp. 277–284. [CrossRef]
Schaube, F. , 2013, “ Untersuchungen zur Nutzung des CaO/Ca(OH)2-Reaktionssystems für die Thermochemische Wärmespeicherung,” Dissertation, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.
Fujii, I. , Tsuchiya, K. , Higano, M. , and Yamada, J. , 1985, “ Studies of an Energy Storage System by Use of the Reversible Chemical Reaction: CaO + H2O ⇌ Ca(OH)2,” Sol. Energy, 34(4–5), pp. 367–377. [CrossRef]
Schmidt, M. , Gollsch, M. , Giger, F. , Grün, M. , and Linder, M. , 2016, “ Development of a Moving Bed Pilot Plant for Thermochemical Energy Storage With CaO/Ca(OH)2,” AIP Conf. Proc., 1734(2016), p. 50041.
Schmidt, M. , 2017, “ Experimental Investigation of Ca(OH)2 as Thermochemical Energy Storage at Process Relevant Boundary Conditions,” Dissertation, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.
Rougé, S. , A. Criado, Y. , Soriano, O. , and Abanades, J. C. , 2017, “ Continuous CaO/Ca(OH)2 Fluidized Bed Reactor for Energy Storage: First Experimental Results and Reactor Model Validation,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 56(4), pp. 844–852. [CrossRef]
Criado, Y. A. , Huille, A. , Rougé, S. , and Abanades, J. C. , 2016, “ Experimental Investigation and Model Validation of a CaO/Ca(OH)2 Fluidized Bed Reactor for Thermochemical Energy Storage Applications,” Chem. Eng. J., 313, 1194–1205. [CrossRef]
Schaube, F. , Kohzer, A. , Schütz, J. , Wörner, A. , and Müller-Steinhagen, H. , 2013, “ De- and Rehydration of Ca (OH)2 in a Reactor With Direct Heat Transfer for Thermo-Chemical Heat Storage—Part A: Experimental Results,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 91(5), pp. 856–864. [CrossRef]
D. K. Levenspiel , ed., 1991, Fluidization Engineering, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MA.
Alvarez Criado, Y. , Alonso, M. , and Abanades, J. C. , 2015, “ Composite Material for Thermochemical Energy Storage Using CaO/Ca(OH)2,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 54(38), 9314–9327. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.iecr.5b02688
Roßkopf, C. , Haas, M. , Faik, A. , Linder, M. , and Wörner, A. , 2014, “ Improving Powder Bed Properties for Thermochemical Storage by Adding Nanoparticles,” Energy Convers. Manage., 86, pp. 93–98. [CrossRef]
Afflerbach, S. , Kappes, M. , Gipperich, A. , Trettin, R. , and Krumm, W. , 2017, “ Semipermeable Encapsulation of Calcium Hydroxide for Thermochemical Heat Storage Solutions,” Sol. Energy, 148, pp. 1–11. [CrossRef]
Ostermeier, P. , Dawo, F. , Vandersickel, A. , Gleis, S. , and Spliethoff, H. , 2018, “ Numerical Calculation of Wall-to-Bed Heat Transfer Coefficients in Geldart B Bubbling Fluidized Beds With Immersed Horizontal Tubes,” Powder Technol., 333, pp. 193–208. [CrossRef]
Ostermeier, P. , Vandersickel, A. , Becker, M. , Gleis, S. , and Spliethoff, H. , 2017, “ Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer Around a Horizontal Tube Immersed in a Geldart B Bubbling Fluidized Bed,” Multiphase Flow: Theory and Applications, WIT Press, Southampton, UK.
Ostermeier, P. , Vandersickel, A. , Gleis, S. , and Spliethoff, H. , 2017, “ Three Dimensional Multi Fluid Modeling of Geldart B Bubbling Fluidized Bed With Complex Inlet Geometries,” Powder Technol., 312, pp. 89–102. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Fluidization test rig with heat flux probe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Pressure vessel of the fluidized bed reactor FluBEStoR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the fluidized bed reactor FluBEStoR



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In