Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

A Stand-Alone Hybrid Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell, and Battery System: Case Studies in Jordan

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohammad D. Qandil

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 N. Cramer St., Room 775, Milwaukee, WI 53211
e-mail: mdqandil@uwm.edu

Ahmad I. Abbas

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 N. Cramer St., Room 775, Milwaukee, WI 53211
e-mail: aiabbas@uwm.edu

Hassan D. Qandil

Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering,
University of North Texas,
1155 Union Circle, #310440, Denton, TX 76203-5017
e-mail: hassan.qandil@unt.edu

Muhannad R. Al-Haddad

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 N. Cramer St., Room 775, Milwaukee, WI 53211
e-mail: alhadda3@uwm.edu

Ryoichi S. Amano

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
115 E. Reindl Way, Glendale, WI 53212
e-mail: amano@uwm.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received February 20, 2019; final manuscript received April 28, 2019; published online May 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(11), 111201 (May 17, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-19-1096; doi: 10.1115/1.4043656 History: Received February 20, 2019; Accepted April 28, 2019

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a hybrid photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC), and battery system to power different load cases, which are intended to be used at the Al-Zarqa governorate in Jordan. All aspects related to the potentials of solar energy in the Al-Hashemeya area were studied. The irradiation levels were carefully identified and analyzed and found to range between 4.1 and 7.6 kWh/m2/day; these values represented an excellent opportunity for the photovoltaic solar system. homer (Hybrid Optimization model for Multiple Energy Resources) software is used as an optimization and sizing tool to discuss several renewable and nonrenewable energy sources, energy storage methods, and their applicability regarding cost and performance. Different scenarios with photovoltaic slope, diesel price, and fuel cell cost were done. A remote residential building, school, and factory having an energy consumption of 31 kWh/day with a peak of 5.3 kW, 529 kWh/day with a maximum of 123 kW and 608 kWh/day with a maximum of 67 kW, respectively, were considered as the case studies' loads. It was found that the PV-diesel generator system with battery is the most suitable solution at present for the residential building case, while the PV-FC-diesel generator-electrolyzer hybrid system with battery suites best both the school and factory cases. The load profile for each case was found to have a substantial effect on how the system's power produced a scheme. For the residential building, PV panels contributed by about 75% of the total power production, the contribution increased for the school case study to 96% and dropped for the factory case to almost 50%.

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Fig. 1

Al-Hashemeya's location near Zarqa-Jordan

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Fig. 2

Solar radiation and the clearness index for the Al-Hashemeya area

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Fig. 3

HOMER implementation of the proposed hybrid energy system

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Fig. 4

Fuel cell block diagram

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Fig. 5

Diagram of a PEM electrolyzer cell and the basic principles of operation

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Fig. 6

Operating reserve's input window in homer

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Fig. 7

Cost summary window

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Fig. 8

OST with a PV slope of 26 deg for the residential building

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Fig. 9

OST with a PV slope of 45 deg for the residential building

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Fig. 10

OST with a PV slope of 26 deg for the school

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Fig. 11

OST with a PV slope of 45 deg for the school

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Fig. 12

OST with a PV slope of 26 deg for the factory

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Fig. 13

OST with a PV slope of 45 deg for the factory



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