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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Effect of Piston Crevices on the Numerical Simulation of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition Operation

[+] Author and Article Information
Iolanda Stocchi

Dipartimento d’Ingegneria,
Universita degli Studi di Perugia,
Perugia 06125, Italy
e-mail: iole.stocchi@gmail.com

Jinlong Liu

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Center for Alternative Fuels Engines and Emissions (CAFEE),
West Virginia University,
Morgantown, WV 26506-6106
e-mail: jlliu@mix.wvu.edu

Cosmin Emil Dumitrescu

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Center for Alternative Fuels Engines and Emissions (CAFEE) & Center for Innovation in Gas Research and Utilization (CIGRU),
West Virginia University,
PO Box 6106—ESB E-275,
Morgantown, WV 26506-6106
e-mail: cedumitrescu@mail.wvu.edu

Michele Battistoni

Dipartimento d’Ingegneria,
Universita degli Studi di Perugia,
Perugia 06125, Italy
e-mail: michele.battistoni@unipg.it

Carlo Nazareno Grimaldi

Dipartimento d’Ingegneria,
Universita degli Studi di Perugia,
Perugia 06125, Italy
e-mail: carlo.grimaldi@unipg.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received January 4, 2019; final manuscript received April 30, 2019; published online May 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Dr. Avinash Kumar Agarwal.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(11), 112204 (May 17, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: JERT-19-1007; doi: 10.1115/1.4043709 History: Received January 04, 2019; Accepted May 02, 2019

Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics internal combustion engine simulations that use a simplified combustion model based on the flamelet concept provide acceptable results with minimum computational costs and reasonable running times. Moreover, the simulation can neglect small combustion chamber details such as valve crevices, valve recesses, and piston crevices volume. The missing volumes are usually compensated by changes in the squish volume (i.e., by increasing the clearance height of the model compared to the real engine). This paper documents some of the effects that such an approach would have on the simulated results of the combustion phenomena inside a conventional heavy-duty direct injection compression-ignition engine, which was converted to port fuel injection spark ignition operation. Numerical engine simulations with or without crevice volumes were run using the G-equation combustion model. A proper parameter choice ensured that the numerical results agreed well with the experimental pressure trace and the heat release rate. The results show that including the crevice volume affected the mass of a unburned mixture inside the squish region, which in turn influenced the flame behavior and heat release during late-combustion stages.

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Figures

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Fig. 3

Term definition based on normalized cylinder pressure and heat release

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Fig. 2

Engine model mesh geometry (cylinder head, cylinder liner, and piston) at the TDC

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Fig. 7

In-cylinder methane mass fraction distribution at several CAD of interest

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Fig. 8

Comparison of the simulated engine performance and combustion phasing compared to experimental data: (a) peak pressure and IMEP and (b) peak pressure location, CA10, CA50, CA90, and DOC

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Fig. 9

The change in (a) CO emissions and (b) UHC emissions, normalized to the maximum values predicted by CFD-1

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Fig. 10

The change in (a) NOx emissions trace and (b) bulk temperature during the combustion process, normalized to the maximum values predicted by CFD-1

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Fig. 11

Spatially averaged in-cylinder flow environment: (a) turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and (b) dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, normalized to the maximum values predicted by CFD-1

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Fig. 12

In-cylinder gas velocity distribution at several CAD of interest

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Fig. 13

In-cylinder turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) distribution at several CAD of interest. Normalized from 16 m2/s2.

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Fig. 14

Spatially averaged in-cylinder behavior: (a) turbulent flame speed and (b) G-equation-based flame thickness, normalized to the maximum values predicted by CFD-1

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Fig. 1

Experimental setup: (a) test bed and (b) schematic diagram

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Fig. 4

Number of computational cells during simulation: (a) fluid cells number and (b) chemical cells number

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Fig. 5

Numerical computing and solution data output size on disk of CFD-2 and CFD-3 relative to CFD-1

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Fig. 6

Comparison of the simulated cylinder pressure and the heat release rate with experimental data: (a) comparisons shown for the whole compression and expansion stroke and (b) comparisons shown for the combusting period only

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