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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

A Simplified and Efficient Method for Water Flooding Production Index Calculations in Low Permeable Fractured Reservoir

[+] Author and Article Information
Shun Liu

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Stimulation Technology for Oil & Gas Reservoirs,
Engineering Research Center of Development and Management for Low to Ultra-Low Permeability Oil & Gas Reservoirs in West China (Ministry of Education),
Xi’an Shiyou University,
Xi’an, Shaanxi 710065, China
e-mail: liushun631@163.com

Liming Zhang

School of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
66 Changjiang West Road, Qingdao,
Shandong 266555, China
e-mail: zhangliming@upc.edu.cn

Kai Zhang

School of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
66 Changjiang West Road, Qingdao,
Shandong 266555, China
e-mail: zhangkai@upc.edu.cn

Jianren Zhou

School of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
66 Changjiang West Road,
Qingdao, Shandong 266555, China
e-mail: 308998526@qq.com

Heng He

Research Institute of Oil and Gas Technology,
Changqing Oilfield Company, PetroChina,
Xi’an, Shaanxi 710021, China
e-mail: hebalance@163.com

Zhiwei Hou

School of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
66 Changjiang West Road, Qingdao,
Shandong 266555, China
e-mail: 2889590211@qq.com

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received March 26, 2018; final manuscript received March 20, 2019; published online May 28, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ray (Zhenhua) Rui.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(11), 112905 (May 28, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1233; doi: 10.1115/1.4043788 History: Received March 26, 2018; Accepted March 22, 2019

Presently, predicting the production performance of fractured reservoirs is often challenging because of the following two factors: one factor such as complicatedly connected and random distribution nature of the fractures and the other factor includes the limitations of the understanding of reservoir geology, deficient fracture-related research, and defective simulators. To overcome the difficulties of simulating and predicting fractured reservoir under complex circumstances of cross flow, a simplified model, which assumes cross flow only exists in the oil phase segment, is constructed. In the model, the pressure distribution of a single fracture can be described by solving an analytical mathematical model. In addition, due to research and field experience which indicate that cross flow also exists in the mixed-phase segment after water injection, the simplified model is modified to consider cross flow in the whole phase. The model constructed here is applicable for fractured reservoirs especially for a low-permeability fracture reservoir, and it moderately predicts future production index. By using iterative methods, the solution to the model can be feasibly obtained and related production performance index formulas can be derived explicitly. A case study was performed to test the model, and the results prove that it is good.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic for a single fracture

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Fig. 2

Schematic of cross flow in the oil phase

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Fig. 3

Schematic of cross flow in the miscible zone and in the oil phase segment

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Fig. 4

Flowchart of the model considering cross flow in the oil phase segment

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Fig. 5

Flow chart to simulate multifracture

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Fig. 6

Pressure drop comparison

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Fig. 7

Cross flow amount analysis

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Fig. 8

Comparison of the change in the fracture pressure with fracture width

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Fig. 9

Comparison of water breakthrough time for different fracture widths

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Fig. 10

Contrast of water breakthrough time with different fracture pressure difference

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Fig. 11

Lognormal distribution of fracture width

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Fig. 12

Oil recovery with respect to time

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Fig. 13

Changes in water content ratio

Tables

Errata

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