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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Comparison of Near-Wall Flow and Heat Transfer of an Internal Combustion Engine Using Particle Image Velocimetry and Computational Fluid Dynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
Angela Wu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
1231 Beal Avenue, 2026 Auto Lab,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: atswu@umich.edu

Seunghwan Keum

Modeling and Simulation, GM R&D,
30565 William Durant Boulevard,
Warren, MI 48092
e-mail: seunghwan.keum@gm.com

Mark Greene

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: mlgreene@umich.edu

David Reuss

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: dreuss@umich.edu

Volker Sick

Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
1231 Beal Avenue, 2007 Auto Lab,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: vsick@umich.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received April 23, 2019; final manuscript received June 3, 2019; published online June 28, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Sundar Rajan Krishnan.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(12), 122202 (Jun 28, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-19-1251; doi: 10.1115/1.4044021 History: Received April 23, 2019; Accepted June 04, 2019

In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling capability of near-wall flow and heat transfer was evaluated against experimental data. Industry-standard wall models for RANS and large-eddy simulation (LES) (law of the wall) were examined against the near-wall flow and heat flux measurements from the transparent combustion chamber (TCC-III) engine. The study shows that the measured, normalized velocity profile does not follow the law of the wall. This wall model, which provides boundary conditions for the simulations, failed to predict the measured velocity profiles away from the wall. LES showed a reasonable prediction in peak heat flux and peak in-cylinder pressure to the experiment, while RANS-heat flux was closer to experimental heat flux but lower in peak pressure. The measurement resolution is higher than that of the simulations, indicating that higher spatial resolution for CFD is needed near the wall to accurately represent the flow and heat transfer. Near-wall mesh refinement was then performed in LES. The wall-normal velocity from the refined mesh case matches better with measurements compared with the wall-parallel velocity. Mesh refinement leads to a normalized velocity profile that matches with measurement in trend only. In addition, the heat flux and its peak value matches well with the experimental heat flux compared with the base mesh.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the TCC-III engine with pressure transducer locations [32]

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Fig. 2

(a) Top-down view of the TCC engine, with PIV measurement location on a plane 28 mm from the central tumble plane, and heat flux probe indicated by the dot and (b) nominal field-of-view of 5 × 6 mm at the head

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Fig. 3

Cylinder pressure traces from the experiment and simulations. Experiment and LES are ensemble averaged.

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Fig. 4

Number of velocity vector samples in the field-of-view of the PIV measurement at 0 CAD aTDCc

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Fig. 5

Ensemble-averaged wall-parallel velocity at 1300 rpm, normalized by the shear velocity. The black dashed line denotes the log-law model, with κ = 0.41 and B = 5.2.

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Fig. 6

Velocity field from PIV, RANS, and LES from −30 to 0 CAD aTDCc. Only every eighth vector in PIV is shown. The PIV and LES velocity fields are ensemble averaged.

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Fig. 7

Wall-parallel, u, and wall-normal, v, velocity components of PIV, RANS, and LES. The vertical error bars indicate one standard deviation of the PIV and LES velocity (cycle-to-cycle variations).

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Fig. 8

Normalized velocity from LES and RANS, compared against PIV measurements and law of the wall model

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Fig. 9

Temperature profiles from RANS and LES. Solid and dashed lines are −30 and 0 CAD aTDCc.

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Fig. 10

Heat flux from LES, RANS, and experiment

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Fig. 11

Mesh topology of (a) base and (b) refined meshes

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Fig. 12

Wall-parallel, u, and wall-normal, v, velocity components of PIV and LES base and refined mesh cases. The vertical error bars indicate one standard deviation of the PIV and LES velocity (cycle-to-cycle variations).

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Fig. 13

Normalized velocity from LES base and refined mesh cases, compared against PIV measurements and law of the wall model

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Fig. 14

Temperature profiles from the base and refined meshes. Solid and dashed lines are −30 and 0 CAD aTDCc.

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Fig. 15

Heat flux from the experiment, and LES base and refined mesh cases

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