Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Thermodynamic, Economic, and Environmental Comparison Between the Direct and Indirect CO2 Refrigeration Cycle With Conventional Indirect NH3 Cycle With Considering a Heat Recovery System in an Ice Rink: A Case Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Hossien Momeni

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Kerman Branch,
Islamic Azad University,
Kerman 7617663949, Iran
e-mail: hss64ir@gmail.com

Mohammad Mehdi Keshtkar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Kerman Branch,
Islamic Azad University,
Kerman 7617663949, Iran
e-mail: keshtkar@iauk.ac.ir

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received April 23, 2019; final manuscript received July 9, 2019; published online July 31, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Esmail M. A. Mokheimer.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 142(1), (Jul 31, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-19-1250; doi: 10.1115/1.4044270 History: Received April 23, 2019; Accepted July 09, 2019

In industrial refrigeration systems, such as ice rinks, because of consumption of a lot of energy, the selection of a refrigeration system is very important. At this work, environmental considerations are combined with thermodynamics and economics for the comparison of three different refrigeration systems in an ice rink, including the NH3/brine, CO2/brine, and full CO2. The first law of thermodynamics is used to calculate the system's coefficient of performance (COP) and the second law of thermodynamics is applied to quantify the exergy destructions in each component of a refrigeration system. With regard to the above, the exergy efficiency and energy consumption of the systems are determined by taking into account the heat recovery process that has been performed in the above-mentioned cycles. The results indicate that if a heat recovery system has been used in the refrigeration system, coefficient of performance of full CO2 refrigeration system is 33% higher than the CO2/brine and 66% greater than the NH3/brine system. The results also show that, whatever the refrigeration evaporating temperature in the NH3/brine system reaches lower than −12.4 °C, the total cost of this system will be greater than the full CO2 system.

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of (a) indirect and (b) direct refrigeration system in ice rink application

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Fig. 2

Schematic of (a) indirect brine/NH3 (NB) refrigeration system, (b) indirect CO2/Brine (CB) refrigeration system, and (c) direct system using the full CO2 as the refrigerant (CF)

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Fig. 3

The change in the COP of the system by the isentropic efficiency of compressor calculated in the present study and Almeida et al.'s study [24]

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Fig. 4

The P–h diagram: (a) NH3/brine (NB), (b) the CO2/brine (CB), and (c) the CO2 full (CF) refrigeration cycle, under specified conditions

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Fig. 5

Comparison between the COP of three cycles (a) with heat recovery system (b) without heat recovery system

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Fig. 6

Comparison between (a) compressor work, (b) energy consumption (including compressor work and pump work in the distribution system), and (c) the rate of heat recovery in three refrigeration systems

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Fig. 7

Change in the COP at various ambient temperatures for the studied refrigeration systems: (a) with using heat recovery system and (b) without using the heat recovery system

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Fig. 8

Change in the COP for at various evaporation temperatures and the constant ambient temperature of 25 °C for three studied systems: (a) with the heat recovery system and (b) without the heat recovery system

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Fig. 9

Comparison of exergy destruction values for different components in three refrigeration systems

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Fig. 10

Change in the total exergy destruction relative to evaporation temperature for three refrigeration system

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Fig. 11

Annual costs of (a) maintenance (b) electricity consumption, pertaining to three studied refrigeration systems

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Fig. 12

Total revenue requirement (TRR) for the three studied refrigeration systems (a) with heat recovery system (b) without heat recovery system

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Fig. 13

The levelized carrying charges for three refrigeration systems over the total period of annual operation

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Fig. 14

The cost of the break-even point for indirect NB refrigeration system and direct CF system

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Fig. 15

The production of environmental pollutant gases in the three studied refrigeration systems: (a) carbon monoxide (CO), (b) carbon dioxide (CO2), and (c) nitrogen oxide (NOx)



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