J. Energy Resour. Technol. 1989;111(1):1-7. doi:10.1115/1.3231396.

The following report reviews the development and state of engineering economic applications of the second law of thermodynamics. It encompasses virtually all of the work carried out publicly in the United States, and to the best of our knowledge that done in other countries (but also see Tsatsaronis, 1987). The ultimate objective here is to provide direction for future research on the fundamentals and applications of this subject, and for the support thereof. We begin with a historical review, which is important for better comprehension of second law costing, its objectives, its state, and its prospects. Following the history, further relevant background, on cost accounting, is presented in Part II. Part III describes in general terms the different exergy costing methods which are in existence. Parts IV and V constitute the nucleus of the report. Therein the various techniques are analyzed and critiqued, generally by considering successive publications developing and/or based on a technique. Part IV is devoted to algebraic methods for determining and applying exergy costs and Part V, to be presented in the sequel to this article, to calculus methods. These two parts do refer to each other, and the relationships between them are developed. Suggestions regarding further research are incorporated into both sections. It should be mentioned that the references we cite are not intended to be exhaustive. However, it is our intention to refer to the most recent work of each author, so that the reader may trace back to earlier publications. Also, the bibliographies of Wepfer (1979) and Liu and Wepfer (1983) are quite exhaustive.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 1989;111(1):8-15. doi:10.1115/1.3231402.

The following article completes the review of the development and state of engineering economic applications of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which was begun in Part I (El-Sayed and Gaggioli, 1989). We began with a historical review, followed by a brief discussion of the relevant cost accounting concepts and, in turn, general descriptions of the different exergy costing methods which are in existence. Then, the various algebraic techniques of exergy costing were analyzed and critiqued, generally by considering successive publications developing and/or based on a technique. This paper, on the other hand, is devoted primarily to calculus methods. Of course the algebraic and calculus techniques do relate to each other, and those relationships are developed here. Furthermore, general concepts, discussion and conclusions which are relevant to both algebraic and calculus methods are presented, along with suggestions regarding further research.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 1989;111(1):16-21. doi:10.1115/1.3231395.

Introduction of diluents into diffusion flames is an effective method of changing their combustion and pollutant emission characteristics. Since the dominant thermochemical processes vary from region to region of a burning spray, diluent injection at different locations of a flame can affect its overall characteristics differently. This study examines the effects of location and orientation of N2 injection into an air-atomized kerosene spray flame. Flame length, radiant emission, temperature profiles, flame opacity, and concentration profiles of NO, CO, and soot are measured. The overall emission indexes of NO, CO, and soot are calculated. Results show that the diluent injection in the axial downstream direction is superior to the radial injection from the point of reducing heat loss to the combustor walls. The location of injection affects flame characteristics substantially. Injection of diluent into midflame region produces largest reductions in radiation, flame length, and emissions of soot and CO. Nitric oxide emission does not depend significantly on the location of injection.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 1989;111(1):22-33. doi:10.1115/1.3231397.

This paper presents the orifice calibration results for nominal 15.24, 10.16, and 5.08-cm (6, 4, 2-in.) orifice meters conducted at the Chevron’s Sand Hills natural gas flow measurement facility in Crane, Texas. Over 200 test runs were collected in a field environment to study the accuracy of the orifice meters. Data were obtained at beta ratios ranging from 0.12 to 0.74 at the nominal conditions of 4576 kPa and 27°C (650 psig and 80°F) with a 0.57 specific gravity processed, pipeline quality natural gas. A bank of critical flow nozzles was used as the flow rate proving device to calibrate the orifice meters. Orifice discharge coefficients were computed with ANSI/API 2530-1985 (AGA3) and ISO 5167/ASME MFC-3M-1984 equations for every set of data points. The uncertainty of the calibration system was analyzed according to The American National Standard (ANSI/ASME MFC-2M-A1983). The 10.16 and 5.08-cm (4 and 2-in.) orifice discharge coefficients agreed with the ANSI and ISO standards within the estimated uncertainty level. However, the 15.24-cm (6-in.) meter deviated up to − 2 percent at a beta ratio of 0.74. With the orifice bore Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 9 million, the Sand Hills calibration data bridge the gap between the Ohio State water data at low Reynolds numbers and Chevron’s high Reynolds number test data taken at a larger test facility in Venice, Louisiana. The test results also successfully demonstrated that orifice meters can be accurately proved with critical flow nozzles under realistic field conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 1989;111(1):34-36. doi:10.1115/1.3231398.

The Orkiszewski correlation is used extensively in the petroleum industry for predicting pressure gradients when gas and liquid flow simultaneously in wells. Unfortunately, the correlation contains a parameter called the liquid distribution coefficient, Γ , that can be discontinuous at a superficial mixture velocity of 10 ft/sec. The liquid distribution coefficient is used to predict both the elevation and friction components of the pressure gradient for slug flow. The accepted trial and error method for integrating the pressure gradient to obtain pressure loss in wells can fail to converge when pressure gradients are discontinuous. Examples of discontinuities in Γ for oil as the continuous phase are presented for several liquid viscosities ranging from 0.3 to 200 cp and for pipe diameters of 1.049, 2.441 and 6.049 in. It was found that a constraint recommended for Γ when mixture velocity <10 ft/sec was essentially useless. It was also found that a constraint for velocities >10 ft/sec could actually increase the magnitude of pressure gradient discontinuity. Convergence of pressure loss calculations when the discontinuity was encountered was possible only if the convergence tolerance was temporarily relaxed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 1989;111(1):37-42. doi:10.1115/1.3231399.

Experimental investigations on the effect of inlet turbulence and flow distortion on the performance of a monoplane and a biplane Wells turbine are reported. The performance of biplane Wells turbine is more sensitive to turbulence when compared with a monoplane. The primary effect of increase in turbulence on the performance of Wells turbine is the postponement of stall.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 1989;111(1):43-49. doi:10.1115/1.3231400.

Melting and resolidification of a phase change material around two cylindrical heat exchangers spaced vertically have been investigated experimentally. Experiments have been performed to examine the effects of the cylinder surface temperatures on heat transfer during the melting and freezing cycle. The processes have been clarified on the basis of observations of timewise variations in the solid/liquid interface and of temperature distribution measurements in the phase change material. The results show that the solid/liquid interface contour during the melting and resolidification of the liquid from the upper cylinder is greatly affected by the surface temperature of the lower cylinder. The results show that multiple liquid regions may develop in the phase change material around the embedded heat sources/sinks, and the temperature swings and melting and freezing periods need to be selected properly in order to effectively utilize the phase change material in a latent heat energy storage unit.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 1989;111(1):50-54. doi:10.1115/1.3231401.

The forced vertical vibratory motion of a rigid body with a circular base on the surface of a transversely isotropic material is investigated by using the method of Hankel transform. The total dynamic contact force is obtained through a complete contour integration in terms of the Rayleigh surface waves. The real-valued displacement functions are expressed in terms of the frequency factor and the anisotropic material constants. The resonant amplitudes of vibration are shown to depend significantly on the anisotropic material constants, the mass ratio, and the vibration frequency.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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