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TECHNICAL PAPERS

J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2002;124(3):125-132. doi:10.1115/1.1482405.

This paper proposes new methods to estimate both the rock strength and tooth wear while drilling with roller-bits. Laboratory drilling tests were conducted to obtain the penetration rate, bit weight and torque using milled-tooth bits with different tooth wear (T0, T4, T7). Drilling media used for the tests were soft to medium-hard rocks whose uniaxial compressive strength ranged from 14 to 118 MPa. Based on the test results, a parameter, which presents the rock strength independent of the tooth wear, was first investigated. The investigation revealed that a parameter related to the axial energy and the rotary energy required to drill rock is effective to estimate the rock strength independent of the tooth wear. Second, methods to estimate the tooth wear were studied based on the same parameter that represents the rock strength. From the results of this study, methods to measure the tooth wear are proposed.

Topics: Wear , Drilling , Rocks , Rollers
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2002;124(3):133-140. doi:10.1115/1.1482406.

New methods to estimate both the rock strength and tooth wear while drilling with roller-bits were developed and proposed in Part 1. These methods were derived from the results of drilling tests using milled-tooth type three-cone bits with different amounts of tooth wear. In this report, these methods were extended and applied to insert type three-cone bits. The validity of the test and data analyses techniques of Part 1 were confirmed for insert bits. The methods to estimate the tooth wear proposed in Part 1 were based on the drillability strength of rock. A new approach to determine the tooth wear is presented. This new approach could be more readily applied to evaluating tooth wear when compared to the previous methods based on the drillability strength of rock.

Topics: Wear , Drilling , Rocks , Rollers
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2002;124(3):141-145. doi:10.1115/1.1485293.

Organic salt brines represent a good alternative to drill through deep productive zones. The literature presents these salts as thermal stabilizers of polymers used in the formulation of drill-in fluids. An extensive study was carried out to evaluate the rheological behavior of formate-based fluids as a function of temperature and density. An analytical expression was developed to correlate shear stresses with temperature for general drilling fluids and a special case of this expression results in a greatly simplified expression that is valid for a number of drilling and completion fluids produced using different alkali-metal salts of formic acid. The advantage of this new approach is the lack of dependence between the proposed correlation and the choice of a rheological model. Unlike many expressions presented in the literature, the expression proposed and methodology that follows allows the choice of a best-fit model to predict the fluid’s rheological behavior as a function of temperature. Experimental results show that formates do improve the thermal stability of polymers. The proposed correlations will soon be incorporated in a wellbore cleaning numerical simulator to compensate for thermal effects.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2002;124(3):146-153. doi:10.1115/1.1485745.

The impact of frictional forces on the overall forces when drilling with a PDC bit has previously been implied by models and by single cutter and bit tests. This report describes new experiments to measure friction between three different bit surface materials and two different rocks over a wide range of normal stresses in up to four different fluids. Polished PDC cutters are shown to have lower frictional forces on the face of the cutter than standard cutters in both water and mineral oil. The measured friction coefficients were generally higher than reported in previous studies.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2002;124(3):154-162. doi:10.1115/1.1486018.

Vibrations generated in a drill string while drilling generally lead to a reduction in drilling efficiency and often cause premature failure of drill string components and bit damage. It is also known that lateral vibrations, in particular, are responsible for most measurement-while-drilling (MWD) tool failures while drilling. One way to increase drilling efficiency and avoid tool damage is to monitor and analyze drilling vibrations so that drilling parameters can be adjusted while drilling to reduce such vibrations. An alternative method is to analyze and determine the natural frequencies of the bottom-hole assembly (BHA) so that resonant conditions caused by various excitation mechanisms in the drill string can be avoided. Even though models have been developed in the past in the drilling industry to determine the natural frequencies of a BHA, few attempts have been made to demonstrate that such models do actually help reduce vibrations or failures. This paper deals with the process of field validation of model-derived frequencies for axial, torsional and lateral vibrations. The results presented in this paper are based on the analysis of drilling data from a field test using downhole vibration measurement sensors. The downhole measurements included X and Y bending moments, axial acceleration, dynamic weight-on-bit, dynamic torque, and X and Y-axis magnetometers mounted in an MWD sub. The data analysis demonstrates that the natural frequencies predicted by the models match well with actual field (measured) values at the locations of interest, particularly for lateral vibrations. This analysis therefore shows that model derived results can be used with a degree of confidence to help avoid resonant conditions in a BHA while drilling and to help reduce failures.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2002;124(3):163-172. doi:10.1115/1.1487879.

This study presents a simplified method to predict inflow performance of and cumulative production from selectively perforated wells in bounded reservoirs. The model first calculates the pseudo-skin for a fully perforated well penetrating a formation with only unit thickness. Then, perforation pseudo-skin is superimposed on a two-dimensional selectively open completed well model. Using the new model, a sensitivity study is carried out to identify the parameters controlling the well flow rate and total recovery. The sensitivity study includes the impact of shot density, perforation size and length, phasing angle, perforated length/formation thickness ratio, and the degree of formation damage around the wellbore and perforations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2002;124(3):173-179. doi:10.1115/1.1486019.

This paper presents thermodynamic analyses of ten different scenarios for using natural gas to power motor vehicles. Specifically, it presents a comparison between different types of automotive vehicles using fuels made from natural gas feedstock. In comparing the various fuel-vehicle options, a complete well-to-wheel fuel cycle is considered. This approach starts with the well at which the feedstock is first extracted from the ground and ends with the power finally delivered to the wheels of the vehicle. This all-inclusive comparison is essential in order to accurately and fairly compare the transportation options. This study indicates that at the present time hybrid-electric vehicles, particularly those using diesel components, can achieve the highest efficiency among available technologies using natural gas as the primary energy source. Hydrogen spark ignition, all-electric battery-powered, and methanol fuel cell vehicles rank lowest in well-to-wheel efficiency because of their poor fuel production efficiencies.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2002;124(3):180-186. doi:10.1115/1.1484392.

Results are presented from two-phase flow wax deposition tests using a state-of-the-art, high-pressure, multiphase flow test facility. Wax deposition was found to be flow pattern specific and dependent on the flow velocities of the two-phase fluids. Wax deposition occurs only along the pipe wall in contact with a waxy crude oil. An increase in mixture velocity results in harder deposits, but with a lower deposit thickness. The wax buildup trend at low mixture velocities is similar to that observed in laminar single-phase flow tests. The wax buildup trend at high mixture velocities is similar to that observed in turbulent single-phase flow tests. Thinner and harder deposits at the bottom than at the top of the pipe were observed in horizontal and near-horizontal intermittent flow tests. For annular flow tests, thicker and harder deposits were observed at low superficial liquid velocity than at high superficial liquid velocity. In stratified flow tests, no wax deposition was observed along the upper portion of the pipe.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2002;124(3):187-190. doi:10.1115/1.1491981.

Compressors are intolerant to liquids. In reciprocating compressors with inherently large volumetric displacement rates, all modes of liquid ingestion pose a serious problem and can even result in catastrophic failures. This paper describes a simple method of estimating the cylinder pressure and “rod load” (force on the crosshead pin, in compressor terminology) in a double-acting reciprocating compressor. The results indicated that even with moderate volume of liquid present inside the cylinder, the pressure could reach values as high as four to five times its normal value with a correspondingly higher rod load.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2002;124(3):191-196. doi:10.1115/1.1488171.

This paper incorporates a methanol reformer model with a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system model for automotive applications. The reformer model and fuel cell system model have been integrated into a vehicle performance simulator that determines fuel economy and other performance features. Fuel cell vehicle fuel economy using on-board methanol reforming is compared with fuel economy using direct-hydrogen fueling. The overall performance using reforming is significantly less than in a direct-hydrogen fuel cell vehicle.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2002;124(3):197-203. doi:10.1115/1.1488170.

This study was directed to understand the coupling effects of the noncircular geometry of the burner and a crossflow on the combustion of gas jets. This paper compares the characteristics of turbulent propane jet flames from circular (diameter=0.45 cm) and elliptic (major axis/minor axis=3) burners of equivalent exit area in a crossflow. The elliptic burner was oriented with its major axis or minor axis aligned with the crossflow. Experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel provided with optical and probe access and capable of wind speeds up to 12.5 m/s. The burners were fabricated with metal tubes. Instrumentation included a Pt-Pt/13% Rh thermocouple, a quartz-probe gas sampling system, chemiluminescent and nondispersive infrared analyzers, a video-recorder, and a computer data acquisition system. The measurements consisted of the upper and lower limits of jet velocity for a stable flame, flame configuration, and visible length. Flame structure data including temperature profiles and concentration profiles of CO2,O2, CO, and NO were obtained in a two-zone flame configuration (at jet to crossflow momentum flux ratio=0.11), where a planar recirculation exists in the wake of the burner tube followed by an axisymmetric tail. The relative emission indicators of CO and NO were estimated from the composition data. Results show that the upper and lower limits of the fuel jet velocity increase with the crossflow velocity for all burners, and the rate of increase is highest for the elliptic burner with its minor axis aligned with the crossflow. That burner configuration also produces the longest flame. The relative emission indicators show that the CO production is lower and NO production is higher with elliptic burners than with circular burners in crossflow.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2002;124(3):204-213. doi:10.1115/1.1488173.

Nonequilibrium energy transport taking place in the surface region of the metallic substrate due to laser short-pulse heating results in entropy production in electron and lattice systems. The entropy analysis gives insight into the irreversible processes taking place in this region during the laser short-pulse heating process. In the present study, entropy production during laser shortpulse heating of copper is considered. Equations governing the nonequilibrium energy transport are derived using an electron kinetic theory approach. The entropy equations due to electron and lattice systems and coupling of these systems are formulated. The governing equations of energy transport and entropy production are solved numerically. Two pulse shapes, namely step input intensity and exponential intensity, are employed in the analysis. It is found that entropy production due to coupling process attains higher values than those produced due to electron and lattice systems. The effect of pulse shape on the entropy production inside the substrate material is significant.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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