J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2018;140(3):030201-030201-3. doi:10.1115/1.4039237.

The Reviewers of the Year Award is given to reviewers who have made an outstanding contribution to the journal in terms of the quantity, quality, and turnaround time of reviews completed during the past 12 months. The prize includes a Wall Plaque, 50 free downloads from the ASME Digital Collection, and a one year free subscription to the journal.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032001-032001-10. doi:10.1115/1.4037810.

This paper presents the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of small-scale α-type Stirling engine. The developed mathematical model comprises of unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes set of equations, i.e., continuity, momentum, and energy equations; turbulence was modeled using standard κ–ω model. Moreover, presented numerical model covers all modes of heat transfer inside the engine: conduction, convection, and radiation. The model was built in the framework of the commercial CFD software ANSYS fluent. Piston movements were modeled using dynamic mesh capability in ANSYS fluent; their movement kinematics was described based on the crankshaft geometry and it was implemented in the model using user-defined functions written in C programming language and compiled with a core of the ANSYS fluent software. The developed numerical model was used to assess the performance of the analyzed Stirling engine. For this purpose, different performance measures were defined, including coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficiency, and irreversibility factor. The proposed measures were applied to evaluate the influence of different heating strategies of the small-scale α-type Stirling engine.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032002-032002-8. doi:10.1115/1.4037902.

Numerous studies have shown that the minimization of entropy generation does not always lead to an optimum performance in energy conversion systems. The equivalence between minimum entropy generation and maximum power output or maximum thermal efficiency in an irreversible power cycle occurs subject to certain design constraints. This article introduces specific entropy generation defined as the rate of total entropy generated due to the operation of a power cycle per unit flowrate of fuel. Through a detailed thermodynamic modeling of a gas turbine cycle, it is shown that the specific entropy generation correlates unconditionally with the thermal efficiency of the cycle. A design at maximum thermal efficiency is found to be identical to that at minimum specific entropy generation. The results are presented for five different fuels including methane, hydrogen, propane, methanol, and ethanol. Under identical operating conditions, the thermal efficiency is approximately the same for all five fuels. However, a power cycle that burns a fuel with a higher heating value produces a higher specific entropy generation. An emphasis is placed to distinguish between the specific entropy generation (with the unit of J/K mol fuel) and the entropy generation rate (W/K). A reduction in entropy generation rate does not necessarily lead to an increase in thermal efficiency.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032003-032003-8. doi:10.1115/1.4037936.

The paper presents the method of fouling degree evaluation of the heating surfaces in pulverized coal-fired boiler during coal combustion and biomass co-combustion. The fouling processes have a negative impact on the boiler operation by reducing the steam outlet temperature, increasing the mass flow rate of cooling spray water, and may be the reason for overheating of the superheater (SH) tube material. This leads to a reduction of the boiler efficiency and can cause shortening of a lifetime as well as damage of boiler heat exchangers, in particular, the steam SH. The basis of fouling degree assessment method are the dimensionless coefficients, which represent current values of heat absorbed by an individual heat exchanger in comparison to the value for a clean surface. The coefficients are determined based on the calculated heat power of individual heat exchanger taking into account the adjustment resulting from the flue gas temperature inside a combustion chamber. The results of the analysis showed a significant reduction of the amount of heat absorbed by the convection SH during continuous boiler operation. The next important conclusion is a large increase of the heat amount transferred to the radiant SH, which may result in exceeding the permissible temperature of the tube material. The proposed method together with on-line monitoring system installed on the boiler is used to calculate the fouling degree of individual heating surfaces. Accurate monitoring of boiler heating surface conditions can be used to optimize soot blowers operation and finally to improve process efficiency.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032004-032004-5. doi:10.1115/1.4038053.

The basis of a novel method for seawater desalination is outlined. In this work, pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) energy is obtained and used posteriorly for the reverse osmosis (RO) process for seawater desalination. Although PRO process coupled with an RO process has been studied in the past, however, in this work, there is a fundamental difference. Instead of bringing river or wastewaters with low salinity to the coast to be mixed with the seawater to run the PRO process, here is the seawater which is deliberately salinized. This technique has one important consequence, namely, that it is no longer required to be in places where rivers or wastewaters flow into the sea. This important difference eliminates this until now somehow paradoxical requirement if one considers that regions needing desalination are generally poor of water resources. On the other hand, it is not a coincidence that regions needing desalination plants are also regions with rich open salt deposits in the neighborhood; high evaporation, high concentration of salt deposits, and the need for freshwater are all of them directly correlated. Therefore, the idea proposed in the paper is consistent with the problem. The high evaporation in the region which is causing the need for desalination also is creating the solution to do this by using the salt deposits created. The economic feasibility of this method is preliminarily assessed in terms of the thermodynamic limits of extractable energy and then with the cost of the salt required to obtain this energy which is compared with the price from electrical grid. It was found that in order to reduce the amount of salt required for the process, and to make the cost of energy competitive, it is necessary to direct the hypersaline draw solution (draw solution) in a cyclic loop and to have the highest possible volume fraction for the nonsalinized solution (feed solution). Additional R&D is required to explore the possibilities of this concept.

Topics: Cycles , Seawater , Water
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032005-032005-7. doi:10.1115/1.4037967.

The analytical model of Carey is extended and clarified for modeling Tesla turbine performance. The extended model retains differentiability, making it useful for rapid evaluation of engineering design decisions. Several clarifications are provided including a quantitative limitation on the model’s Reynolds number range; a derivation for output shaft torque and power that shows a match to the axial Euler Turbine Equation; eliminating the possibility of tangential disk velocity exceeding inlet working fluid velocity; and introducing a geometric nozzle height parameter. While nozzle geometry is limited to a slot providing identical flow velocity to each channel, variable nozzle height enables this velocity to be controlled by the turbine designer as the flow need not be choked. To illustrate the utility of this improvement, a numerical study of turbine performance with respect to variable nozzle height is provided. Since the extended model is differentiable, power sensitivity to design parameters can be quickly evaluated—a feature important when the main design goal is maximizing measurement sensitivity. The derivatives indicate two important results. First, the derivative of power with respect to Reynolds number for a turbine in the practical design range remains nearly constant over the whole laminar operating range. So, for a given working fluid mass flow rate, Tesla turbine power output is equally sensitive to variation in working fluid physical properties. Second, turbine power sensitivity increases as wetted disk area decreases; there is a design trade-off here between maximizing power output and maximizing power sensitivity.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032006-032006-10. doi:10.1115/1.4038045.

There are many ways to integrate reservoir and production system simulations to forecast production, in a single model (implicit) or in coupled models (explicit). Explicit coupling, a simple and flexible coupling method, has the advantage of using commonly available commercial software to integrate reservoir and production systems simulations. However, explicit coupling may produce large deviations as the inflow performance relationship (IPR) curve, which combines well pressure and production and injection rates, can only be evaluated or amended at the beginning of a time-step. As the IPR curve changes during a time-step, it may be necessary to correct unstable results for well pressure and rates. Using a previously proposed IPR correction method, numerical stability was improved, reducing deviations during advancing the time step. A formula was created to support the correction of IPR curve. The methodology was tested using cases with known responses for pressures and flow rates, for a predetermined production strategy from the benchmark case UNISIM-I-D. Deviations were reduced to near zero when compared with uncoupled and decoupled methodologies to integrate reservoir with production system simulations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032007-032007-7. doi:10.1115/1.4038463.

The free-piston linear generator (FPLG) is a new electromechanical generator. It converts chemical energy into electrical energy by means of a combustion process, a linear generator, and a gas spring. The FPLG does not use any crankshaft, which is responsible for a lot of losses. Thereby, the technology aims to have better properties than other electromechanical generators: higher efficiency over wide range of operating points, better noise–vibration–harshness package. This publication deals with the explanation of the concept, the characteristics of a FPLG, and one of the challenges in the development. In order to use a port scavenging, the emission issue is the challenge and has to be solved. One possible solution is the use of solid lubricants to substitute motor oil. On this way, the development methodology and one aspect of the development is explained.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032008-032008-7. doi:10.1115/1.4038665.

The necessity of limitation of carbon dioxide emissions, which also concerns the energy sector, causes that more and more effective and efficient methods of CO2 capture from the flue gas are being tested. Among these technologies are adsorption ones, which have been used for a gas separation for many years. The characteristic features of adsorption separation are: long life of the sorbents used, low energy expenditure, and minim effect on the environment; however, their application requires adequate initial preparation of the flue gas fed into the system of CO2 separation so that the flue gas temperature is as low as possible, and there is no water content in it. The study presents the concept and numerical calculations of the system for preparation of the flue gas feeding the CO2 adsorption (vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA)) separation unit, using the absorption chiller (AC). In the presented concept, the AC is driven by the flue gas which is used as both: upper and lower heat source for AC; however, due to the amount of energy being carried out with the flue gas, which is larger than required by the AC, the additional heat exchangers must be implemented. The calculations presented in the study show that owing to the application of AC, flue gas may be cooled down to temperatures even about 5 °C. Moreover, the simultaneous process of flue gas cooling and drying in such system is realized at low energy expenditure which leads to improvement of the overall energy efficiency of the system of CO2 separation from flue gas and also to reduction of its dimensions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032009-032009-5. doi:10.1115/1.4038588.

Vehicles are getting transformed from a single source of energy to dual or multiple sources of energy due to ever-increasing fuel problems and environment-related issues. Although hybrid vehicles provide environmental friendly option, however, they require sophisticated mechanical, electrical, and electronic parts and systems. As a result, hybrid cars are more expensive than fossil fuel-based conventional cars. One of the cost effective options is to convert used fossil fuel-based conventional cars into hybrid or electric cars. This conversion requires installation of electric motor and complex electronic control system for smooth and safe operation. This paper presents necessary details about the conversion of a conventional fossil fuel-based car into a solar-electric hybrid (SOLECT) car. Conversion of a conventional car into a SOLECT car can help people to save on fuel costs and protect environment.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032201-032201-6. doi:10.1115/1.4037373.

Catalytic effects of metal oxides on combustion characteristics of inferior coal, sludge, and their mixture were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Combustion and thermal dynamic characteristics including ignition temperatures, apparent activation energy, and frequency factors of inferior coal, sludge, and their mixture were observed. The catalytic effects and mechanism of combustion were discussed. Results showed that thermal gravity analysis (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) curves of coal and sludge shifted to lower temperature side, the weight losses increased, and the ignition performance was improved with the addition of metal oxides CaO, Al2O3, and K2O. The combustion dynamics analysis showed that the apparent activation energy of cocombustion of coal blending sludge decreased by 11–20% and the frequency factors increased by 20–30%. The minimum apparent activation energy and the maximum frequency factors were obtained in the presence of K2O, indicating that the catalytic effect of K2O was most significant.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032202-032202-18. doi:10.1115/1.4037688.

Chemical composition and thermodynamics properties of different thermal plasmas are calculated in a wide range of temperatures (300–100,000 K) and pressures (10−6–100 atm). The calculation is performed in dissociation and ionization temperature ranges using statistical thermodynamic modeling. The thermodynamic properties considered in this study are enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy, specific heat at constant pressure, specific heat ratio, speed of sound, mean molar mass, and degree of ionization. The calculations have been done for seven pure plasmas such as hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and argon. In this study, the Debye–Huckel cutoff criterion in conjunction with the Griem’s self-consistent model is applied for terminating the electronic partition function series and to calculate the reduction of the ionization potential. The Rydberg and Ritz extrapolation laws have been used for energy levels which are not observed in tabulated data. Two different methods called complete chemical equilibrium and progressive methods are presented to find the composition of available species. The calculated pure plasma properties are then presented as functions of temperature and pressure, in terms of a new set of thermodynamically self-consistent correlations for efficient use in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The results have been shown excellent agreement with literature. The results from pure plasmas as a reliable reference source in conjunction with an alternative method are then used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of any arbitrary plasma mixtures (mixed plasmas) having elemental atoms of H, He, C, N, O, Ne, and Ar in their chemical structure.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032203-032203-9. doi:10.1115/1.4037941.

Inlet port design has a great influence on swirl generation inside the engine cylinder. In this paper, two helical inlet ports having the same helix design were suggested. The first has an upper entrance, and the second has a side entrance. With the two ports, shrouded inlet valves having different conditions of shroud and orientation angles were used. Four shroud angles were used; they are 90 deg, 120 deg, 150 deg, and 180 deg. Also, four orientation angles were used; they are 0 deg, 30 deg, 60 deg, and 90 deg. Three-dimensional simulation model using the shear stress transport k–ω model was used for predicting the air flow characteristics through the inlet port and the engine cylinder in both intake and compression strokes. The results showed that the side entrance port produces swirl ratio higher than that of the upper entrance port by about 3.5%, while the volumetric efficiency is approximately the same for both ports. For both the ports, increasing the valve shroud angle increases the swirl ratio and reduces the volumetric efficiency. The maximum increments of swirl ratio relative to the ordinary valve case occur at valve conditions of 30–150 deg, 0–180 deg, and 30–180 deg. At these valve conditions, the swirl ratio values are 6.38, 6.72, and 6.95 at intake valve close (IVC) with percentage increments of 69.2%, 78.2%, and 84.4%, respectively. The corresponding values of the volumetric efficiency are 93.6, 92.5, and 91.2, respectively, with percentage decrements of 2.84%, 4%, and 5.7%, respectively.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032204-032204-10. doi:10.1115/1.4038380.

Production of biodiesel from waste palm oil (WPO) can provide alternative energy and at the same time reduce the problems created by disposal of WPO. In this study, a novel, inexpensive, and environmental benign carbon acid catalyst is prepared by direct in situ concentrated H2SO4 impregnation of palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB) powder and employed for biodiesel production using WPO. The structure and the physiochemical properties of the prepared catalyst (PEFB-DS-SO3H) are analyzed by acid-base back titration data, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-EDS), SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and using N2 adsorption and desorption isotherm data. It is observed that the catalyst has a unique amorphous structure with total acid density of 5.40 mmolg−1, surface area of 5.5 m2g−1, and 0.31 cm3g−1 pore volume. In addition, FT-IR, XPS, and EDS results confirm a successful sulfonation during the catalyst preparation. It is found that fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield increases with increasing methanol:oil (molar ratio) and reaction time up to an optimum value. The highest biodiesel yield of 91% is reported under reaction conditions of 5 wt % catalyst, 14:1 methanol: oil (molar ratio), at 65–70 °C after 14 h in an open reflux system. Results show that the catalyst can be reused for four consecutive cycles without significant loss of catalytic activity. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel are compatible with the international fuel standards for biodiesel.

Topics: Catalysts , Biodiesel , Carbon
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032205-032205-10. doi:10.1115/1.4038464.

The aim of this paper is to identify and investigate the potential and limitations of diesel–gas combustion concepts for high speed large engines operated in gas mode with very small amounts of pilot fuel (<5% diesel fraction). Experimental tests were carried out on a flexible single cylinder research engine (displacement 6.24 dm3) equipped with a common rail system. Various engine configurations and operating parameters were varied and the effects on the combustion process were analyzed. The results presented in this paper include a comparison of the performance of the investigated dual fuel concept to those of a state-of-the-art monofuel gas engine and a state-of-the-art monofuel diesel engine. Evaluation reveals that certain limiting factors exist that prevent the dual fuel engine from performing as well as the superior gas engine. At the same NOx level of 1.3 g/kWh, the efficiency of the dual fuel engine is ≈3.5% pts. lower than that of the gas engine. This is caused by the weaker ignition performance of the injected pilot fuel compared to that of the gas scavenged prechamber of the gas engine. On the other hand, the dual fuel concept has the potential to compete with the diesel engine. The dual fuel engine can be operated at the efficiency level of the diesel engine yet with significantly lower NOx emissions (3.5 g/kWh and 6.3 g/kWh, respectively). Since the injection of pilot fuel is of major importance for flame initialization, and thus for the main combustion event of the dual fuel engine, optical investigations in a spray box, measurements of injection rates, and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation were conducted to obtain even more detailed insight into these processes. A study on the influence of the diesel fraction shows that diminishing the diesel fraction from 3% to lower values has a significant impact on engine performance because of the effects of such a reduction on injection, ignition delay, and initial flame formation. The presented results illustrate which operating strategy is beneficial for engine performance in terms of low NOx emissions and high efficiency. Moreover, potential measures can be derived which allow for further optimization of the diesel–gas combustion process.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032901-032901-8. doi:10.1115/1.4037351.

Casing integrity management is crucial, especially in wells experiencing severe casing wall degradation. Knowledge of stress distribution in worn casing helps predict where a casing failure occurs first. In industrial practice, a common method is to estimate the reduction of the casing burst strength in worn casing using API burst strength equation with a linear reduction in the remaining wall thickness or wear percentage equivalent to a “uniform-worn” casing model. This study focuses on building a rigorous engineering model for burst strength degradation prediction based on “crescent shape” casing wear. This model calculates the hoop strength directly, including the local bending in the thinner portion of the “crescent-worn” casing. This paper has developed a mathematical model to calculate the hoop strength of worn out casing with force and moment balance equations. This study finds the calculation of reduced strength using the linear wear model to be overly conservative because it only focuses on the stress at the thinnest portion of the worn casing. The stress predicted in this paper is similar to the results obtained from the finite element method (FEM), which validates equations and results obtained from this paper. The developed model is generic and can apply to casings, risers, and tubings.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032902-032902-10. doi:10.1115/1.4037901.

Isenthalpic flash is a type of flash calculation conducted at a given pressure and enthalpy for a feed mixture. Multiphase isenthalpic flash calculations are often required in compositional simulations of steam-based enhanced oil recovery methods. Based on a free-water assumption that the aqueous phase is pure water, a robust and efficient algorithm is developed to perform isenthalpic three-phase flashes. Assuming that the feed is stable, we first determine the temperature by solving the energy conservation equation. Then, the stability test on the feed mixture is conducted at the calculated temperature and the given pressure. If the mixture is found unstable, two-phase and three-phase vapor–liquid–aqueous isenthalpic flash can be simultaneously initiated without resorting to stability tests. The outer loop is used to update the temperature by solving the energy conservation equation. The inner loop determines the phase fractions and compositions through a three-phase free-water isothermal flash. A two-phase isothermal flash will be initiated if an open feasible region in the phase fractions appears in any iteration during the three-phase flash or any of the ultimately calculated phase fractions from the three-phase flash do not belong to [0,1]. A number of example calculations for water/hydrocarbon mixtures are carried out, demonstrating that the proposed algorithm is accurate, efficient, and robust.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032903-032903-11. doi:10.1115/1.4037903.

A novel slab source function has been formulated and successfully applied to examine effects of non-Darcy flow and penetrating ratio on performance of a horizontal well with multiple fractures in a tight formation. The Barree–Conway model is incorporated in the mathematical model to analyze non-Darcy flow behavior in the hydraulic fractures, while the pressure response under non-Darcy flow is determined by two dimensionless numbers (i.e., relative minimum permeability (kmr) and non-Darcy number (FND)). A semi-analytical method is then applied to solve the newly formulated mathematical model by discretizing the fracture into small segments. The newly developed function has been validated with numerical solution obtained from a reservoir simulator. Non-Darcy effect becomes more evident at a smaller relative minimum permeability (kmr < 0.05) and a larger non-Darcy number (FND > 10). The non-Darcy number is found to be more sensitive than the relative minimum permeability, resulting in a larger pressure drop even at a larger kmr. In addition, the non-Darcy flow is found to impose a significant impact on the early-stage bilinear/linear flow regime, resulting in an additional pressure drop that is similar to lowering the fracture conductivity. The pressure response can be classified into two categories by a penetrating ratio of 0.5. When the penetrating ratio is decreased, the early bilinear/linear flow regime occurs, followed by an early radial flow regime.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032904-032904-8. doi:10.1115/1.4037899.

Drill-bit vibrations and bit wear have been identified as the two major causes for premature polycrystalline diamond-compact (PDC) bit failure and difficulty in accurately predicting PDC bit performance. The objective of this paper is to present a new approach to drilling optimization by developing an algorithm that defines and generates a constrained stable rotary speed (RPM)–weight-on-bit (WOB) working domain for a given system as opposed to the traditional RPM–WOB charts. The algorithm integrates the dynamic-stability model for bit vibrations with the bit-performance model for degraded bits. This study addresses the issues of dynamic-bit stability under torsional and lateral vibrations coupled with bit wear. The approach presented in this paper involves performing two separate analyses: vibration stability and bit-wear performance analysis. The optimum operating conditions are estimated at each depth of the drilling interval, taking into consideration the effect of bit wear and bit vibrations. Because the bit wears continuously while penetrating the rocks, discretization of depth is necessary for effective simulation. Discretization is done by dividing the drilling interval into subintervals of the desired length. Vibration-stability analysis and bit-wear performance analysis are preformed separately at every subinterval and then integrated over the discrete interval. For every subinterval, a WOB–RPM domain is determined within which the given system is dynamically stable (for vibrations), and the bit wear does not exceed the maximum allowable wear (MAW) for the section of the drilling interval selected. A unique concept to relate the fractional change in hydromechanical specific energy (HMSE) to the fractional change in bit wear has also been put forward that further constraints the WOB–RPM stable working domain. The new coupled vibration-stability chart, including the maximum rate of penetration (ROP), narrows down the conventional chart and provides different regions of operational stability. It has also been found that as the compressive strength of the rock increases, the bit-gauge friction factor also increases, which results in a compressed or reduced allowable working domain, both from the vibration-stability analysis and bit-performance analysis. Simple guidelines have been provided using the new stability domain chart to estimate the operating range for real-time optimization.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032905-032905-9. doi:10.1115/1.4038044.

Mathematical models were developed in this study to quantify the gas and water transfer between coal matrix and cleat network during coalbed methane (CBM) drainage, which can be helpful to achieve some useful findings on features of fluid migration within coal reservoirs during drainage process. A typical CBM well located at southern Qinshui basin of China was selected as the case study. The ineffective critical porosity was defined and was used to acquire fluid transfer as a key parameter of the established model. Results showed that both the gas and water transfer controlled the drainage performances. Water drained from cleat was found to be the main reason for the decrease in the reservoir pressure at the early drainage stage, while the water transfer became significantly more important with the continuation of the drainage process. The first peak of gas production was controlled by gas desorption, and the subsequent peaks were influenced by the gas transfer.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032906-032906-14. doi:10.1115/1.4038054.

The injection of CO2 has been in global use for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) as it can improve oil production in mature fields. It also has environmental benefits for reducing greenhouse carbon by permanently sequestrating CO2 (carbon capture and storage (CCS)) in reservoirs. As a part of numerical studies, this work proposed a novel application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to forecast the performance of a water-alternating-CO2 process and effectively manage the injected CO2 in a combined CCS–EOR project. Three targets including oil recovery, net CO2 storage, and cumulative gaseous CO2 production were quantitatively simulated by three separate ANN models for a series of injection frames of 5, 15, 25, and 35 cycles. The concurrent estimations of a sequence of outputs have shown a relevant application in scheduling the injection process based on the progressive profile of the targets. For a specific surface design, an increment of 5.8% oil recovery and 4% net CO2 storage was achieved from 25 cycles to 35 cycles, suggesting ending the injection at 25 cycles. Using the models, distinct optimizations were also computed for oil recovery and net CO2 sequestration in various reservoir conditions. The results expressed a maximum oil recovery from 22% to 30% oil in place (OIP) and around 21,000–29,000 tons of CO2 trapped underground after 35 cycles if the injection began at 60% water saturation. The new approach presented in this study of applying an ANN is obviously effective in forecasting and managing the entire CO2 injection process instead of a single output as presented in previous studies.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032907-032907-7. doi:10.1115/1.4038196.

Due to the limited temperature resistance, the deep conformance control technology of using the conventional hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel failed to enhance oil recovery in high-temperature heterogeneous oil reservoirs. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a gelant with high temperature resistance to meet the demands of increasing oil production and decreasing water cut in high-temperature heterogeneous oil reservoirs. In this paper, a copolymer is first synthesized by the method of inverse emulsion polymerization using 2-acrylamide-2-tetradecyl ethyl sulfonic acid (AMC16S), acrylamide (AM), and acrylic acid (AA). The developed copolymer has a highly branching skeleton and can resist temperature up to 100 °C. And then, a gelant with high temperature resistance and good shear resistance can be formed by mixing a certain proportion of the developed copolymer and polyethyleneimine (PEI). After the controllable gelation, a copolymer gel is formed and the formed gel can maintain the stable performance for a long time in the high-temperature environment. Experimental results show that the developed gelant can be applied in the conformance control of high-temperature heterogeneous oil reservoir.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032908-032908-12. doi:10.1115/1.4038131.

Deviated, horizontal, and multilateral wells are drilled to increase the contact area between the well path and the reservoir and as a result, the well productivity will be increased. Directional steering systems (DSS) are used to control the direction in nonvertical wells. Rotary steerable system (RSS) is the current state of the art of DSS. In this research, the problem of real-time control of autonomous RSS with unknown formation rock strength was presented. The aim of this study is to develop a real-time control scheme for real-time optimization of drilling parameters to (1) maximize the rate of penetration (ROP), (2) minimize the deviation from the planned well bore trajectory, (3) reduce the stick–slip oscillations, and (4) assess the degree of bit wear. Nonlinear model for the drilling operation was developed using energy balance equation, where rock specific energy (RSE) is used to calculate the minimum power required for a given ROP. A proposed mass spring system was used to represent the phenomena of stick–slip oscillation. The model parameters have been adaptively estimated at each control iteration to tackle any disturbances or variations in the formation properties. The bit wear is mathematically represented using Bourgoyne model. Detailed mathematical formulation and computer simulation were used for evaluation of the performance of the proposed technique based on real well field data. The obtained results showed excellent ability to accommodate the changes in the formation properties. In addition, the rates of bit wear and stick–slip oscillations have been optimized.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032909-032909-12. doi:10.1115/1.4038379.

Pore-scale modeling is becoming a hot topic in overall reservoir characterization process. It is an important approach for revealing the flow behaviors in porous media and exploring unknown flow patterns at pore scale. Over the past few decades, many reconstruction methods have been proposed, and among them the simulated annealing method (SAM) is extensively tested and easier to program. However, SAM is usually based on the two-point probability function or linear-path function, which fails to capture much more information on the multipoint connectivity of various shapes. For this reason, a new reconstruction method is proposed to reproduce the characteristics of a two-dimensional (2D) thin section based on the multipoint histogram. First, the two-point correlation coefficient matrix will be introduced to determine an optimal unit configuration of a multipoint histogram. Second, five different types of seven-point unit configurations will be used to test the unit configuration selection algorithm. Third, the multipoint histogram technology is used for generating the porous space reconstruction based on the prior unit configuration with a different calculation of the objective function. Finally, the spatial connectivity, patterns reproduction, the local percolation theory (LPT), and hydraulic connectivity are used to compare with those of the reference models. The results show that the multipoint histogram technology can produce better multipoint connectivity information than SAM. The reconstructed system matches the training image very well, which reveals that the reconstruction captures the geometry and topology information of the training image, for instance, the shape and distribution of pore space. The seven-point unit configuration is enough to get the spatial characters of the training image. The quality of pattern reproduction of the reconstruction is assessed by computing the multipoint histogram, and the similarity is around 97.3%. Based on the LPT analysis, the multipoint histogram can describe the anticipated patterns of geological heterogeneities and reproduce the connectivity of pore media with a high degree of accuracy. The two-point correlation coefficient matrix and a new construction theory are proposed. The new construction theory provides a stable theory and technology guidance for the study of pore space development and multiphase fluid flow rule in the digital rock.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032910-032910-6. doi:10.1115/1.4038384.

Polymer-gel, as a rheological complex fluid, is vulnerable to slip at solid walls. If wall slip occurs, the accuracy of viscosity measurements that are based on the no-slip boundary condition assumption is affected. This paper presents a general numerical procedure based on Tikhonov regularization for correcting Couette viscometry data in the presence of wall slip. This procedure needs only two-measurement viscosity data from two different annular gap sizes. Using the presented procedure, we determined the viscosity and wall slip behavior of a special polymer-gel used for leakage control. The results show that, the polymer-gel ZND-2 does not always exhibit significant wall slip, until the polymer content reaches a critical level of 0.3–0.5% by mass. An empirical correlation was proposed in power law form to describe the relationship between wall slip velocity and wall shear stress. It indicates that there is a minimum wall shear stress that needs to be overcome for a given polymer-gel sample manifesting wall slip phenomenon. The critical minimum wall shear stress and the gel structure strength increase drastically when the polymer content increases beyond a certain value, which is 1.0% by mass for ZND-2. When wall slip occurs, the difference is remarkable between the slip-corrected and apparent rheological parameters for different annular gap sizes. The slip-corrected rheological properties indicate that the polymer-gel ZND-2 used for leakage control behaves as a yield plastic fluid and has good shear thinning capability.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032911-032911-7. doi:10.1115/1.4038385.

Foam fluids are widely used in petroleum industry such as foam-enhanced hydrocarbon recovery, underbalanced drilling, and as proppant carrying fluid in hydraulic fracturing. The most important issue to be considered in foam behavior is foam rheology and specifically, apparent viscosity. Various models have been used in order to predict foam apparent viscosity; most of these equations are originally developed for suspension systems, containing rigid spherical particles, and therefore, they are unable to predict foam apparent viscosity with acceptable accuracy. In addition, the lack of a comprehensive model with usage in all foam qualities is still tangible in the literature. In this research, a new general empirical model with application in all foam qualities is proposed and validated against experimental data available in the literature. Despite the simplicity, results have near-unity correlation of determination (R2), which shows good agreement of the proposed model with experimental data. Additionally, a new definition for foam quality is presented, to be more representative of the foam texture.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2018;140(3):032912-032912-11. doi:10.1115/1.4038850.

Horizontal drilling with successful multistage hydraulic fracture treatments is the most widely applied and effective method to enable economic development of hydrocarbon-bearing shale reservoirs. Once fracture networks are established, they must be propped open to maintain pathways for fluid migration through the production phase. As such, the design and application of effective and efficient proppant treatment is considered a key step to successfully develop the targeted resource. Unfortunately, the available literature and simulation tools to describe proppant transport in complex fracture networks are inadequate, and some of the fundamental mechanisms of proppant transport are poorly understood. The present study provides a critical review of relevant published literature to identify important mechanisms of particle transport and related governing equations. Based on that review, a mathematical model was developed to quantitatively predict the transport behavior of proppant particles in model fracture networks. Aspects of this mathematical model are compared against computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation, and implications of this work are discussed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2018;140(3):032913-032913-14. doi:10.1115/1.4038781.

In this paper, we introduce fast marching-succession of steady-states (FM-SSS) method to predict gas production from shale gas formations. The solutions of fast marching method (FMM) will describe the dynamic drainage boundary, and the succession of steady-state (SSS) method is applied to predict the gas production within the drainage boundary. As only the grids within drainage need to be taken into calculation at each time-step, this approach works much more efficiently than the implicit finite difference method, especially, at the early stage of production when the drainage is relatively small.We combine FMM with SSS to conduct reservoir simulation and predict gas production in shale gas reservoirs. The pressure profiles of transient flow are approximated with the pressure profiles of steady-state flow in our approach. The difference between the proposed method and the conventional SSS method is that we provide an efficient method to characterize the boundary conditions. In the conventional SSS method, the boundary pressure has to be measured, which is inconvenient for simulation purposes, whereas FM-SSS method takes the dynamic drainage as a changing boundary and approximates the drainage boundary pressure with initial reservoir pressure, such that the boundary condition can be numerically characterized. A major advantage of our approach is that it is unconditionally stable and more efficient than the implicit finite difference method because much smaller-scale linear equations need to be solved at each time-step.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2018;140(3):032914-032914-9. doi:10.1115/1.4038784.

In this paper, experimental techniques have been developed to prepare and characterize chemical agents for augmenting injectivity in low permeability reservoirs. First, chemical agents are selected, formulated, and optimized on the basis of interfacial tension (IFT), scale inhibition ratio, and clay particle size distribution and specific surface area. The spinning drop method is utilized to measure the IFT between crude oil and the formulated solution, while contact angle between brine and rock surface is measured to examine effect of the chemical agents on the rock wettability. Also, scale inhibition ratio and antiswelling ratio are, respectively, measured by performing static-state scale inhibition experiments and centrifugation experiments. Then, displacement experiments are conducted to evaluate injectivity improvement after one pore volume (PV) of such formulated chemical agents has been injected into a core plug. It is found that the optimized solution consists of 0.15 wt % fluorocarbon surfactant FC-117, 4.00 wt % isopropanol, 1.20 × 10−3 wt % scale inhibitor 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTCA), and 1.50 wt % clay stabilizer diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC). The IFT between crude oil and the optimized solution can be reduced to 5.36 × 10−3 mN/m within a short time, while the scale inhibition ratio and antiswelling ratio are measured to be 94.83% and 86.96%, respectively. It is found from comprehensive evaluation experiments that such a formulated and optimized solution can not only alter the rock surface from oil-wet to water-wet but also reduce the scale formation of the reservoir brine. In addition, it is shown from displacement experiments that the pressure is decreased by 34.67% after the injection of such formulated solution. When the formulated solution contains 0–300,000 mg/L sodium chloride (NaCl) and 0–5000 mg/L calcium chloride (CaCl2) at 50–90 °C, the IFT between crude oil and the formulated solution can be reduced to lower than 10−2 mN/m.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2018;140(3):032915-032915-9. doi:10.1115/1.4038848.

Linear coreflood experiments are performed at 60 °C to test the effectiveness of a low molecular weight associative polymer as a displacing agent, and its ability to enhance oil recovery on chemically treated oil-wet Berea cores. Polymer injection tests revealed high mobility reductions (resistance factor (RF)) and reduced remaining oil saturations. Results obtained suggest that the incremental oil production is due to the high mobility reduction, as reported previously for water-wet porous media. The reduced remaining oil saturation is a function of the injected associative polymer treatment volume. Polymer mobility reduction is highly affected by the injected polymer velocity; this reduction is observed to be more significant at the lower velocity spectrum. Therefore, the established incremental oil production, even at reduced polymer injection rates (lower capillary numbers), could be explained by the increased mobility reduction. A correlation for the velocity-dependent mobility reduction is developed. Results are in agreement with previously reported ones in water-wet media and related to the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) nature of the injected associative polymer as opposed to the traditional mobility control of other polymer types. During injection, a column of oil-polymer emulsion is formed gradually in the separator causing operational difficulties and introducing produced fluid measurement (and core fluid saturations) uncertainties. Produced oil/water emulsion polymer volume content is used to correct overestimated oil production attributed to measurement uncertainties. Real-time resistivity measurements could also be a valuable tool for both fluids saturation monitoring and improved core fluids saturation evaluation in flooded porous media.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):034501-034501-5. doi:10.1115/1.4038664.

Optical assessment of oil shale using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was carried out to study oil potential. Fischer assay testing was employed to obtain the oil yield of oil shale specimens to examine the difference of oil potential between oil shale samples from three regions: Beipiao, Barkol, and Huadian in China. Then, two types of specimens from each area were prepared for the optical tests and the results were compared. The refractive index (n) at 0.2–1.2 THz was derived; n decreased slowly with increasing frequency for all the specimens despite the oscillation pattern observed at lower frequencies. The specimen preparation method that mixed the powdered material led to minor differences between the specimens. The different response of kerogen to the terahertz pulse depending on the kerogen's evolutionary stage leads to a difference in the refractive index between the specimens from the various regions. This study indicates that using THz-TDS to evaluate the oil content in oil shale without inducing reaction within the specimen can be an effective method for resource exploration.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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