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Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032001-032001-10. doi:10.1115/1.4037810.

This paper presents the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of small-scale α-type Stirling engine. The developed mathematical model comprises of unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes set of equations, i.e., continuity, momentum, and energy equations; turbulence was modeled using standard κ–ω model. Moreover, presented numerical model covers all modes of heat transfer inside the engine: conduction, convection, and radiation. The model was built in the framework of the commercial CFD software ANSYS fluent. Piston movements were modeled using dynamic mesh capability in ANSYS fluent; their movement kinematics was described based on the crankshaft geometry and it was implemented in the model using user-defined functions written in C programming language and compiled with a core of the ANSYS fluent software. The developed numerical model was used to assess the performance of the analyzed Stirling engine. For this purpose, different performance measures were defined, including coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficiency, and irreversibility factor. The proposed measures were applied to evaluate the influence of different heating strategies of the small-scale α-type Stirling engine.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032002-032002-8. doi:10.1115/1.4037902.

Numerous studies have shown that the minimization of entropy generation does not always lead to an optimum performance in energy conversion systems. The equivalence between minimum entropy generation and maximum power output or maximum thermal efficiency in an irreversible power cycle occurs subject to certain design constraints. This article introduces specific entropy generation defined as the rate of total entropy generated due to the operation of a power cycle per unit flowrate of fuel. Through a detailed thermodynamic modeling of a gas turbine cycle, it is shown that the specific entropy generation correlates unconditionally with the thermal efficiency of the cycle. A design at maximum thermal efficiency is found to be identical to that at minimum specific entropy generation. The results are presented for five different fuels including methane, hydrogen, propane, methanol, and ethanol. Under identical operating conditions, the thermal efficiency is approximately the same for all five fuels. However, a power cycle that burns a fuel with a higher heating value produces a higher specific entropy generation. An emphasis is placed to distinguish between the specific entropy generation (with the unit of J/K mol fuel) and the entropy generation rate (W/K). A reduction in entropy generation rate does not necessarily lead to an increase in thermal efficiency.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032003-032003-8. doi:10.1115/1.4037936.

The paper presents the method of fouling degree evaluation of the heating surfaces in pulverized coal-fired boiler during coal combustion and biomass co-combustion. The fouling processes have a negative impact on the boiler operation by reducing the steam outlet temperature, increasing the mass flow rate of cooling spray water, and may be the reason for overheating of the superheater (SH) tube material. This leads to a reduction of the boiler efficiency and can cause shortening of a lifetime as well as damage of boiler heat exchangers, in particular, the steam SH. The basis of fouling degree assessment method are the dimensionless coefficients, which represent current values of heat absorbed by an individual heat exchanger in comparison to the value for a clean surface. The coefficients are determined based on the calculated heat power of individual heat exchanger taking into account the adjustment resulting from the flue gas temperature inside a combustion chamber. The results of the analysis showed a significant reduction of the amount of heat absorbed by the convection SH during continuous boiler operation. The next important conclusion is a large increase of the heat amount transferred to the radiant SH, which may result in exceeding the permissible temperature of the tube material. The proposed method together with on-line monitoring system installed on the boiler is used to calculate the fouling degree of individual heating surfaces. Accurate monitoring of boiler heating surface conditions can be used to optimize soot blowers operation and finally to improve process efficiency.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032004-032004-5. doi:10.1115/1.4038053.

The basis of a novel method for seawater desalination is outlined. In this work, pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) energy is obtained and used posteriorly for the reverse osmosis (RO) process for seawater desalination. Although PRO process coupled with an RO process has been studied in the past, however, in this work, there is a fundamental difference. Instead of bringing river or wastewaters with low salinity to the coast to be mixed with the seawater to run the PRO process, here is the seawater which is deliberately salinized. This technique has one important consequence, namely, that it is no longer required to be in places where rivers or wastewaters flow into the sea. This important difference eliminates this until now somehow paradoxical requirement if one considers that regions needing desalination are generally poor of water resources. On the other hand, it is not a coincidence that regions needing desalination plants are also regions with rich open salt deposits in the neighborhood; high evaporation, high concentration of salt deposits, and the need for freshwater are all of them directly correlated. Therefore, the idea proposed in the paper is consistent with the problem. The high evaporation in the region which is causing the need for desalination also is creating the solution to do this by using the salt deposits created. The economic feasibility of this method is preliminarily assessed in terms of the thermodynamic limits of extractable energy and then with the cost of the salt required to obtain this energy which is compared with the price from electrical grid. It was found that in order to reduce the amount of salt required for the process, and to make the cost of energy competitive, it is necessary to direct the hypersaline draw solution (draw solution) in a cyclic loop and to have the highest possible volume fraction for the nonsalinized solution (feed solution). Additional R&D is required to explore the possibilities of this concept.

Topics: Cycles , Seawater , Water
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032005-032005-7. doi:10.1115/1.4037967.

The analytical model of Carey is extended and clarified for modeling Tesla turbine performance. The extended model retains differentiability, making it useful for rapid evaluation of engineering design decisions. Several clarifications are provided including a quantitative limitation on the model’s Reynolds number range; a derivation for output shaft torque and power that shows a match to the axial Euler Turbine Equation; eliminating the possibility of tangential disk velocity exceeding inlet working fluid velocity; and introducing a geometric nozzle height parameter. While nozzle geometry is limited to a slot providing identical flow velocity to each channel, variable nozzle height enables this velocity to be controlled by the turbine designer as the flow need not be choked. To illustrate the utility of this improvement, a numerical study of turbine performance with respect to variable nozzle height is provided. Since the extended model is differentiable, power sensitivity to design parameters can be quickly evaluated—a feature important when the main design goal is maximizing measurement sensitivity. The derivatives indicate two important results. First, the derivative of power with respect to Reynolds number for a turbine in the practical design range remains nearly constant over the whole laminar operating range. So, for a given working fluid mass flow rate, Tesla turbine power output is equally sensitive to variation in working fluid physical properties. Second, turbine power sensitivity increases as wetted disk area decreases; there is a design trade-off here between maximizing power output and maximizing power sensitivity.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032201-032201-6. doi:10.1115/1.4037373.

Catalytic effects of metal oxides on combustion characteristics of inferior coal, sludge, and their mixture were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Combustion and thermal dynamic characteristics including ignition temperatures, apparent activation energy, and frequency factors of inferior coal, sludge, and their mixture were observed. The catalytic effects and mechanism of combustion were discussed. Results showed that thermal gravity analysis (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) curves of coal and sludge shifted to lower temperature side, the weight losses increased, and the ignition performance was improved with the addition of metal oxides CaO, Al2O3, and K2O. The combustion dynamics analysis showed that the apparent activation energy of cocombustion of coal blending sludge decreased by 11–20% and the frequency factors increased by 20–30%. The minimum apparent activation energy and the maximum frequency factors were obtained in the presence of K2O, indicating that the catalytic effect of K2O was most significant.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032202-032202-18. doi:10.1115/1.4037688.

Chemical composition and thermodynamics properties of different thermal plasmas are calculated in a wide range of temperatures (300–100,000 K) and pressures (10−6–100 atm). The calculation is performed in dissociation and ionization temperature ranges using statistical thermodynamic modeling. The thermodynamic properties considered in this study are enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy, specific heat at constant pressure, specific heat ratio, speed of sound, mean molar mass, and degree of ionization. The calculations have been done for seven pure plasmas such as hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and argon. In this study, the Debye–Huckel cutoff criterion in conjunction with the Griem’s self-consistent model is applied for terminating the electronic partition function series and to calculate the reduction of the ionization potential. The Rydberg and Ritz extrapolation laws have been used for energy levels which are not observed in tabulated data. Two different methods called complete chemical equilibrium and progressive methods are presented to find the composition of available species. The calculated pure plasma properties are then presented as functions of temperature and pressure, in terms of a new set of thermodynamically self-consistent correlations for efficient use in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The results have been shown excellent agreement with literature. The results from pure plasmas as a reliable reference source in conjunction with an alternative method are then used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of any arbitrary plasma mixtures (mixed plasmas) having elemental atoms of H, He, C, N, O, Ne, and Ar in their chemical structure.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032203-032203-9. doi:10.1115/1.4037941.

Inlet port design has a great influence on swirl generation inside the engine cylinder. In this paper, two helical inlet ports having the same helix design were suggested. The first has an upper entrance, and the second has a side entrance. With the two ports, shrouded inlet valves having different conditions of shroud and orientation angles were used. Four shroud angles were used; they are 90 deg, 120 deg, 150 deg, and 180 deg. Also, four orientation angles were used; they are 0 deg, 30 deg, 60 deg, and 90 deg. Three-dimensional simulation model using the shear stress transport k–ω model was used for predicting the air flow characteristics through the inlet port and the engine cylinder in both intake and compression strokes. The results showed that the side entrance port produces swirl ratio higher than that of the upper entrance port by about 3.5%, while the volumetric efficiency is approximately the same for both ports. For both the ports, increasing the valve shroud angle increases the swirl ratio and reduces the volumetric efficiency. The maximum increments of swirl ratio relative to the ordinary valve case occur at valve conditions of 30–150 deg, 0–180 deg, and 30–180 deg. At these valve conditions, the swirl ratio values are 6.38, 6.72, and 6.95 at intake valve close (IVC) with percentage increments of 69.2%, 78.2%, and 84.4%, respectively. The corresponding values of the volumetric efficiency are 93.6, 92.5, and 91.2, respectively, with percentage decrements of 2.84%, 4%, and 5.7%, respectively.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032901-032901-8. doi:10.1115/1.4037351.

Casing integrity management is crucial, especially in wells experiencing severe casing wall degradation. Knowledge of stress distribution in worn casing helps predict where a casing failure occurs first. In industrial practice, a common method is to estimate the reduction of the casing burst strength in worn casing using API burst strength equation with a linear reduction in the remaining wall thickness or wear percentage equivalent to a “uniform-worn” casing model. This study focuses on building a rigorous engineering model for burst strength degradation prediction based on “crescent shape” casing wear. This model calculates the hoop strength directly, including the local bending in the thinner portion of the “crescent-worn” casing. This paper has developed a mathematical model to calculate the hoop strength of worn out casing with force and moment balance equations. This study finds the calculation of reduced strength using the linear wear model to be overly conservative because it only focuses on the stress at the thinnest portion of the worn casing. The stress predicted in this paper is similar to the results obtained from the finite element method (FEM), which validates equations and results obtained from this paper. The developed model is generic and can apply to casings, risers, and tubings.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032902-032902-10. doi:10.1115/1.4037901.

Isenthalpic flash is a type of flash calculation conducted at a given pressure and enthalpy for a feed mixture. Multiphase isenthalpic flash calculations are often required in compositional simulations of steam-based enhanced oil recovery methods. Based on a free-water assumption that the aqueous phase is pure water, a robust and efficient algorithm is developed to perform isenthalpic three-phase flashes. Assuming that the feed is stable, we first determine the temperature by solving the energy conservation equation. Then, the stability test on the feed mixture is conducted at the calculated temperature and the given pressure. If the mixture is found unstable, two-phase and three-phase vapor–liquid–aqueous isenthalpic flash can be simultaneously initiated without resorting to stability tests. The outer loop is used to update the temperature by solving the energy conservation equation. The inner loop determines the phase fractions and compositions through a three-phase free-water isothermal flash. A two-phase isothermal flash will be initiated if an open feasible region in the phase fractions appears in any iteration during the three-phase flash or any of the ultimately calculated phase fractions from the three-phase flash do not belong to [0,1]. A number of example calculations for water/hydrocarbon mixtures are carried out, demonstrating that the proposed algorithm is accurate, efficient, and robust.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032903-032903-11. doi:10.1115/1.4037903.

A novel slab source function has been formulated and successfully applied to examine effects of non-Darcy flow and penetrating ratio on performance of a horizontal well with multiple fractures in a tight formation. The Barree–Conway model is incorporated in the mathematical model to analyze non-Darcy flow behavior in the hydraulic fractures, while the pressure response under non-Darcy flow is determined by two dimensionless numbers (i.e., relative minimum permeability (kmr) and non-Darcy number (FND)). A semi-analytical method is then applied to solve the newly formulated mathematical model by discretizing the fracture into small segments. The newly developed function has been validated with numerical solution obtained from a reservoir simulator. Non-Darcy effect becomes more evident at a smaller relative minimum permeability (kmr < 0.05) and a larger non-Darcy number (FND > 10). The non-Darcy number is found to be more sensitive than the relative minimum permeability, resulting in a larger pressure drop even at a larger kmr. In addition, the non-Darcy flow is found to impose a significant impact on the early-stage bilinear/linear flow regime, resulting in an additional pressure drop that is similar to lowering the fracture conductivity. The pressure response can be classified into two categories by a penetrating ratio of 0.5. When the penetrating ratio is decreased, the early bilinear/linear flow regime occurs, followed by an early radial flow regime.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032904-032904-8. doi:10.1115/1.4037899.

Drill-bit vibrations and bit wear have been identified as the two major causes for premature polycrystalline diamond-compact (PDC) bit failure and difficulty in accurately predicting PDC bit performance. The objective of this paper is to present a new approach to drilling optimization by developing an algorithm that defines and generates a constrained stable rotary speed (RPM)–weight-on-bit (WOB) working domain for a given system as opposed to the traditional RPM–WOB charts. The algorithm integrates the dynamic-stability model for bit vibrations with the bit-performance model for degraded bits. This study addresses the issues of dynamic-bit stability under torsional and lateral vibrations coupled with bit wear. The approach presented in this paper involves performing two separate analyses: vibration stability and bit-wear performance analysis. The optimum operating conditions are estimated at each depth of the drilling interval, taking into consideration the effect of bit wear and bit vibrations. Because the bit wears continuously while penetrating the rocks, discretization of depth is necessary for effective simulation. Discretization is done by dividing the drilling interval into subintervals of the desired length. Vibration-stability analysis and bit-wear performance analysis are preformed separately at every subinterval and then integrated over the discrete interval. For every subinterval, a WOB–RPM domain is determined within which the given system is dynamically stable (for vibrations), and the bit wear does not exceed the maximum allowable wear (MAW) for the section of the drilling interval selected. A unique concept to relate the fractional change in hydromechanical specific energy (HMSE) to the fractional change in bit wear has also been put forward that further constraints the WOB–RPM stable working domain. The new coupled vibration-stability chart, including the maximum rate of penetration (ROP), narrows down the conventional chart and provides different regions of operational stability. It has also been found that as the compressive strength of the rock increases, the bit-gauge friction factor also increases, which results in a compressed or reduced allowable working domain, both from the vibration-stability analysis and bit-performance analysis. Simple guidelines have been provided using the new stability domain chart to estimate the operating range for real-time optimization.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032905-032905-9. doi:10.1115/1.4038044.

Mathematical models were developed in this study to quantify the gas and water transfer between coal matrix and cleat network during coalbed methane (CBM) drainage, which can be helpful to achieve some useful findings on features of fluid migration within coal reservoirs during drainage process. A typical CBM well located at southern Qinshui basin of China was selected as the case study. The ineffective critical porosity was defined and was used to acquire fluid transfer as a key parameter of the established model. Results showed that both the gas and water transfer controlled the drainage performances. Water drained from cleat was found to be the main reason for the decrease in the reservoir pressure at the early drainage stage, while the water transfer became significantly more important with the continuation of the drainage process. The first peak of gas production was controlled by gas desorption, and the subsequent peaks were influenced by the gas transfer.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2017;140(3):032906-032906-14. doi:10.1115/1.4038054.

The injection of CO2 has been in global use for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) as it can improve oil production in mature fields. It also has environmental benefits for reducing greenhouse carbon by permanently sequestrating CO2 (carbon capture and storage (CCS)) in reservoirs. As a part of numerical studies, this work proposed a novel application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to forecast the performance of a water-alternating-CO2 process and effectively manage the injected CO2 in a combined CCS–EOR project. Three targets including oil recovery, net CO2 storage, and cumulative gaseous CO2 production were quantitatively simulated by three separate ANN models for a series of injection frames of 5, 15, 25, and 35 cycles. The concurrent estimations of a sequence of outputs have shown a relevant application in scheduling the injection process based on the progressive profile of the targets. For a specific surface design, an increment of 5.8% oil recovery and 4% net CO2 storage was achieved from 25 cycles to 35 cycles, suggesting ending the injection at 25 cycles. Using the models, distinct optimizations were also computed for oil recovery and net CO2 sequestration in various reservoir conditions. The results expressed a maximum oil recovery from 22% to 30% oil in place (OIP) and around 21,000–29,000 tons of CO2 trapped underground after 35 cycles if the injection began at 60% water saturation. The new approach presented in this study of applying an ANN is obviously effective in forecasting and managing the entire CO2 injection process instead of a single output as presented in previous studies.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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