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Review Article

J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2019;141(7):070801-070801-26. doi:10.1115/1.4041929.

Over the past few decades, due to the special features (i.e., easily produced, large-surface-area-to-volume ratio, and engineered particles with designed surface properties), nanoparticles have not only attracted great attentions from the oil and gas industry but also had various applications from drilling and completion, reservoir characterization, to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). As sensors or EOR agents, thus, fate and behavior of nanoparticles in porous media are essential and need to be investigated thoroughly. Nevertheless, most of the published review papers focus on particle transport in saturated porous media, and all of them are about steady-state flow conditions. So far, no attempts have been extended to systematically review current knowledge about nanoparticle transport in porous media with single-phase and two-phase flow systems under both steady-state and unsteady-state conditions. Accordingly, this review will discuss nanoparticle transport phenomena in porous media with its focus on the filtration mechanisms, the underlying interaction forces, and factors dominating nanoparticle transport behavior in porous media. Finally, mathematical models used to describe nanoparticle transport in porous media for both single-phase flow and two-phase flow under steady-state and transient flow conditions will be summarized, respectively.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2019;141(7):072001-072001-13. doi:10.1115/1.4042240.
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The main objective of the current work is to investigate the thermodynamic performance of a novel solar powered multi-effect refrigeration system. The proposed cycle consists of a solar tower system with a heliostat field and central receiver (CR) that has molten salt as the heat transfer fluid, an absorption refrigeration cycle (ARC), an ejector refrigeration cycle (ERC), and a cascade refrigeration cycle (CRC). Energy and exergy analyses were carried out to measure the thermodynamic performance of the proposed cycle, using Dhahran weather data and operating conditions. The largest contribution to cycle irreversibility was found to be from the CR system (52.5%), followed by the heliostat field (25%). The first and second-law efficiencies improved due to the increase in the following parameters: ejector evaporator temperature, turbine inlet and exit pressures, and cascade evaporator temperature. Parametric analysis showed that the compressor delivery pressure, turbine inlet and exit pressures, hot molten salt outlet temperature, and ejector evaporator temperature significantly affect the refrigeration output.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2019;141(7):072002-072002-13. doi:10.1115/1.4042239.

In air-conditioning, strategy of decoupling cooling and ventilation tasks has stimulated considerable interest in radiant cooling systems with dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS). In view of this, current paper presents a simulation study to describe energy saving potential of a solar, biogas, and electric heater powered hybrid vapor absorption chiller (VAC) based radiant cooling system with desiccant-coupled DOAS. A medium office building under warm and humid climatic condition is considered. To investigate the system under different operational strategies, energyplus simulations are done. In this study, a novel design involving solar collectors and biogas fired boiler is proposed for VAC and desiccant regeneration. Three systems are compared in terms of total electric energy consumption: conventional vapor compression chiller (VCC) based radiant cooling system with conventional VCC-DOAS, hybrid VAC-based radiant cooling system with conventional VCC-DOAS, and hybrid VAC-based radiant cooling system with desiccant-assisted VCC-DOAS. The hybrid VAC radiant cooling system and desiccant-assisted VCC-DOAS yields in 9.1% lesser energy consumption than that of the VAC radiant cooling system with conventional VCC-DOAS. Results also show that up to 13.2% energy savings can be ensured through triple-hybrid VAC radiant cooling system and desiccant-assisted VCC-DOAS as compared to that of the conventional VCC-based radiant system. The return on investment is observed to be 14.59 yr for the proposed system.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2019;141(7):072901-072901-10. doi:10.1115/1.4042236.

Ultradeep fractured tight sandstone gas reservoir is easy to suffer from severe formation damage during the drill-in process, yet few papers have been published on the corresponding formation damage mechanisms. This paper focuses on a typical ultradeep fractured tight sandstone reservoir in the Tarim Basin, China. Fluid sensitivity damage, phase trapping damage, and the formation damage induced by oil-based drill-in fluids were evaluated by a serious of modified experimental methods. As a supplement, the rock physics and surface property were analyzed deeply. Results showed that severe fluid sensitivity damage occurred with a decrease in fluid salinity (critical value: 3/4 formation water salinity (FWS)) and an increase in fluid pH value (critical value: pH = 7.5). The change in water film thickness, the enhancement of hydrophilia, particle detachment, and dissolution of quartz/albite under high formation temperature are the main damage mechanisms. Abnormal low water saturation, mixed wettability, abundant clay minerals, and complex pore structures are contributing to the severe phase trapping damage. The dynamic damage rate of oil-based drill-in fluids is 60.01%, and inadequate loading capacity is the main trigger of lost circulation. Finally, a formation damage control strategy was proposed, and a field test proved its feasibility.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2019;141(7):072902-072902-11. doi:10.1115/1.4042237.

It is quite common for oil/gas two-phase flow in developing fractured carbonate oil reservoirs. Many analytical models proposed for black oil wells in fractured carbonate reservoirs are limited to single-phase flow cases and conventional methods have been the use of numerical simulations for this problem. In this approach, a novel semi-analytical method is proposed to integrate the complexities of phase change, pressure-dependent pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) properties, two-phase flow behavior, and stress-dependent fracture permeability characteristics. A dual-porosity, black oil model considering the phase change and two-phase flow is applied to model the fractured carbonate reservoirs. To linearize the model, only flow equations of oil phase are used to develop the mathematical model. Nonlinear parameters and producing gas–oil ratio (GOR) are updated with coupled flowing material balance equations, followed by a novel proposed procedure for history matching of field production data and making forecasts. The semi-analytical method is validated with a commercial simulator Eclipse. The results show that both of the production rate curves of oil and gas phase using the proposed model coincide with the numerical simulator. The results also show that the effects of pressure-dependent fracture permeability, fracture porosity, and exterior boundary on production rate are significant. Stress sensitivity influences production rate during the whole process, reducing the cumulative production. Fracture porosity influences production rate during the intermediate flow periods. The exterior boundary affects production rate mainly in the early and intermediate production periods. Finally, a field example from the eastern Pre-Caspian basin is used to demonstrate the practicability of the method. Acceptable history match is achieved and the interpreted parameters are all reasonable.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2019;141(7):072903-072903-7. doi:10.1115/1.4042281.

Drilling mud loss in highly porous media and fractured formations has been one of the industry's focuses in the past decades. Wellbore dynamics and lithology complexities continue to push for more research into accurate quantification and mitigation strategies for lost circulation and mud filtration. Conventional methods of characterizing mud loss with filtration data for field application can be time-consuming, particularly because of the interaction between several factors that impact mud loss and filtration. This paper presents a holistic engineering approach for characterizing lost circulation using pore-scale dynamic water-based mud (WBM) filtration data. The approaches used in this study include: factorial design of experiment (DoE), hypothesis testing, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple regression analysis. The results show that an increase in temperature and rotary speed can increase dynamic mud filtration significantly. An increase in lost circulation material (LCM) concentration showed a significant decrease dynamic mud filtration. A combination of LCM concentration and rotary speed showed a significant decrease in dynamic mud filtration, while a combination of LCM concentration and temperature revealed a significant increase in dynamic mud filtration. Rotary speed and temperature combination showed an increase in dynamic mud filtration. The combined effect of these three factors was not significant in increasing or decreasing dynamic mud filtration. For the experimental conditions in this study, the regression analysis for one of the rocks showed that dynamic mud filtration can be predicted from changes in LCM concentration and rotary speed. The results and approach from this study can provide reliable information for drilling fluids design and selecting operating conditions for field application.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2019;141(7):072904-072904-16. doi:10.1115/1.4042238.

In this study, a novel technique of low salinity hot water (LSHW) injection with addition of nanoparticles has been developed to examine the synergistic effects of thermal energy, low salinity water (LSW) flooding, and nanoparticles for enhancing heavy oil recovery, while optimizing the operating parameters for such a hybrid enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. Experimentally, one-dimensional displacement experiments under different temperatures (17 °C, 45 °C, and 70 °C) and pressures (about 2000–4700 kPa) have been performed, while two types of nanoparticles (i.e., SiO2 and Al2O3) are, respectively, examined as the additive in the LSW. The performance of LSW injection with and without nanoparticles at various temperatures is evaluated, allowing optimization of the timing to initiate LSW injection. The corresponding initial oil saturation, production rate, water cut, ultimate oil recovery, and residual oil saturation profile after each flooding process are continuously monitored and measured under various operating conditions. Compared to conventional water injection, the LSW injection is found to effectively improve heavy oil recovery by 2.4–7.2% as an EOR technique in the presence of nanoparticles. Also, the addition of nanoparticles into the LSHW can promote synergistic effect of thermal energy, wettability alteration, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT), which improves displacement efficiency and thus enhances oil recovery. It has been experimentally demonstrated that such LSHW injection with the addition of nanoparticles can be optimized to greatly improve oil recovery up to 40.2% in heavy oil reservoirs with low energy consumption. Theoretically, numerical simulation for the different flooding scenarios has been performed to capture the underlying recovery mechanisms by history matching the experimental measurements. It is observed from the tuned relative permeability curves that both LSW and the addition of nanoparticles in LSW are capable of altering the sand surface to more water wet, which confirms wettability alteration as an important EOR mechanism for the application of LSW and nanoparticles in heavy oil recovery in addition to IFT reduction.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2019;141(7):072905-072905-13. doi:10.1115/1.4042230.

Produced water re-injection (PWRI) is an important economic and environmental-friendly option to convert waste to value with waterflooding operations. However, it often causes rapid injectivity decline. In the present study, a coreflood test on a low permeable core sample is carried out to investigate the injectivity decline behavior. An analytical model for well impedance (normalized reciprocal of injectivity) growth, along with probabilistic histograms of injectivity damage parameters, is applied to well injectivity decline prediction during produced water disposal in a thick low permeable formation (Völkersen field). An impedance curve with an unusual convex form is observed in both coreflood test and well behavior modeling; the impedance growth rate is lower during external filter cake build-up if compared with the deep bed filtration stage. Low reservoir rock permeability and, consequently, high values of filtration and formation damage coefficients lead to fast impedance growth during deep bed filtration; while external filter cake formation results in relatively slow impedance growth. A risk analysis employing probabilistic histograms of injectivity damage parameters is used to well behavior prediction under high uncertainty conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2019;141(7):072906-072906-15. doi:10.1115/1.4042413.

Reservoir characterization is a process to make dependable reservoir models using available reservoir information. There are promising ensemble-based methods such as ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), ensemble smoother (ES), and ensemble smoother with multiple data assimilation (ES-MDA). ES-MDA is an iterative version of ES with inflated covariance matrix of measurement errors. It provides efficient and consistent global updates compared to EnKF and ES. Ensemble-based method might not work properly for channel reservoirs because its parameters are highly non-Gaussian. Thus, various parameterization methods are suggested in previous studies to handle nonlinear and non-Gaussian parameters. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) can figure out essential channel information, whereas level set method (LSM) has advantages on detailed channel border analysis in grid scale transforming parameters into Gaussianity. However, DCT and LSM have weaknesses when they are applied separately on channel reservoirs. Therefore, we propose a properly designed combination algorithm using DCT and LSM in ES-MDA. When DCT and LSM agree with each other on facies update results, a grid has relevant facies naturally. If not, facies is assigned depending on the average facies probability map from DCT and LSM. By doing so, they work in supplementary way preventing from wrong or biased decision on facies. Consequently, the proposed method presents not only stable channel properties such as connectivity and continuity but also similar pattern with the true. It also gives trustworthy future predictions of gas and water productions due to well-matched facies distribution according to the reference.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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