Flow separation is a phenomenon that occurs in all kinds of supersonic nozzles sometimes during run-up and shut-down operations. Especially in expansion nozzles of rocket engines with large area ratio, flow separation can trigger strong side loads that can damage the structure of the nozzle. The investigation presented in this paper seeks to establish measures that may be applied to alter the point of flow separation. In order to achieve this, a supersonic nozzle was placed at the exit plane of the conical nozzle. This resulted in the generation of cross flow surrounding the core jet flow from the conical nozzle. Due to the entrainment of the gas stream from the conical nozzle the pressure in its exit plane was found to be lower than that of the ambient. A Cold gas instead of hot combustion gases was used as the working fluid. A mathematical simulation of the concept was validated by experiment. Measurements confirmed the simulation results that due to the introduction of a second nozzle the pressure in the separated region of the conical nozzle was significantly reduced. It was also established that the boundary layer separation inside the conical nozzle was delayed thus allowing an increased degree of overexpansion. The condition established by the pressure measurements was also demonstrated qualitatively using transparent nozzle configurations.
Investigation of Flow Separation Inside a Conical Rocket Nozzle With the Aid of an Annular Cross Flow
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Weiss, A, Abanteriba, S, & Esch, T. "Investigation of Flow Separation Inside a Conical Rocket Nozzle With the Aid of an Annular Cross Flow." Proceedings of the ASME/JSME 2007 5th Joint Fluids Engineering Conference. Volume 1: Symposia, Parts A and B. San Diego, California, USA. July 30–August 2, 2007. pp. 1861-1871. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/FEDSM2007-37387
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