Among the different processes that play a role during the atomization process, collisions are addressed in this work. Collisions can be very important in dense two-phase flows. Recently, the Eulerian Lagrangian Spray Atomization (ELSA) model has been developed. It represents the atomization by taking into account the dense zone of the spray. Thus in this context, collisions modeling are of the utmost importance. In this model results of collisions are controlled by the value of an equilibrium Weber number, We*. It is defined as the ratio between the kinetic energy to the surface energy. Such a value of We* has been studied in the past using Lagrangian collision models with various complexity. These models are based on analysis of collisions between droplets that have surface at rest. This ideal situation can be obtained only if droplet agitation created during a collision has enough time to vanish before the next collision. For a spray, this requirement is not always fulfill depending for instance on the mean liquid volume fraction. If there is not enough time, collisions will occur between agitated droplets changing the issue of the collision with respect to the ideal case. To study this effect, a DNS simulation with a stationary turbulence levels has been conducted for different liquid volume fractions in a cubic box with periodic condition in all directions. For liquid volume fraction close to zero the spray is diluted and collisions between spherical droplets can be identified. For a volume fraction close to one, collisions between bubbles are found. For a middle value of the volume fraction no discrete phase can be observed, instead a strong interaction between both liquid and gas phases is taking place. In all this case the equilibrium value of the Weber number We* can be determined. First propositions to determine We* as a function of the kinetic energy, density ratio, surface tension coefficient and the volume fraction will be proposed.

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