The presence of cavitation and turbulence in a diesel injector nozzle has significant effect on the subsequent spray characteristics. However, the mechanism of the cavitating flow and its effect on the subsequent spray is unclear because of the complexities of the nozzle flow, such as the cavitation phenomena and turbulence. A flow visualization experiment system with a transparent scaled-up vertical multi-hole injector nozzle tip was setup for getting the experimental data to make a comparison to validate the calculated results from the three dimensional numerical simulation of cavitating flow in the nozzle with mixture multi-phase cavitating flow model and good qualitative agreement was seen between the two sets of data. The critical conditions for cavitation inception were derived as well as the relationship between the discharge coefficient and non-dimensional cavitation parameter. After wards, the testified numerical models were used to analyze the effects of injection pressure, back pressure, cavitation parameter, Reynolds number, injector needle lift and needle eccentricity on the cavitating flow inside the nozzle. Combined with visual experimental results, numerical simulation results can clearly reveal the three-dimensional nature of the nozzle flow and the location and shape of the cavitation induced vapor distribution, which can help understand the nozzle flow better and eventually put forward the optimization ideas of diesel injectors.

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