Despite immense advances in Laser-Aided Direct Material Deposition process, many issues concerning the adverse effects of process parameters on the stability of variety of properties and the integrity of microstructure have been reported. Macroscopic aspects are important in predicting macroscopic defects or optimizing process conditions, while microstructural features such as phase appearance, morphology, grain size, spacing, or micro-defects are certainly no less important in determining the ultimate properties of the solidified product. Traditional solidification theories as applied to castings or related processes are inappropriate in describing solidification in high-energy beam processes involving significantly greater cooling rates. Due to the complexity and nonlinearity of this process, analytical solutions can rarely address the practical manufacturing process. This paper is an attempt towards a methodology of finite element analysis for the prediction of solidification microstructure and macroscopic as well as microscopic thermal residual stresses in this process. The computer simulation which is based on metallo-thermomechanical theory and finite element analysis for coupled temperature, solidification, phase transformation and stress/strain fields can prove to be a very useful tool in predicting the material behavior and optimizing the process parameters to obtain the best material properties. This model would reduce long and cumbersome experimental routes to predict the material behavior under similar loading conditions.
Three-Dimensional Transient Finite Element Analysis for Microstructure Formation and Residual Stresses in Laser-Aided DMD Process
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Ghosh, S, & Choi, J. "Three-Dimensional Transient Finite Element Analysis for Microstructure Formation and Residual Stresses in Laser-Aided DMD Process." Proceedings of the ASME 2004 Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering Summer Conference. Volume 3. Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. July 11–15, 2004. pp. 969-978. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/HT-FED2004-56359
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