The U.S. Congress recently approved the Yucca Mountain Project in Nevada as the site for the nation’s high level nuclear waste repository. The Project now moves into the licensing, construction and operating phases. The question posed by this paper is what organization approach is best suited to carry out those functions as well as the affiliated transportation and waste acceptance activities? Currently the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors are responsible for the implementation of the Project. Other alternatives include a government corporation, private industry, a different U.S. government agency, or a combination of the above? There are pros and cons to each approach. This paper will present pros and cons and discuss the implications of each alternative. It will also discuss experience from other similar endeavors around the world. The U.S Federal Administration will need to consider this important question to assure the success of the program, because it is so important to the energy and national security of the nation. And its success or failure will set a precedent for repository programs around the world.

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