A splat formation model including undercooling, nucleation, and non-equilibrium solidification has been developed to study the thermal characteristics of molten droplets impacting on a flat substrate. The nucleation sub-model is based on the classic nucleation theory accounting for heterogeneous nucleation kinetic and crystal growth. The effects of contact angle on nucleation temperature and grain density have been investigated. The grain size distributions have been predicted and compared with experimental results for molybdenum (Mo) splats on different substrates. Based on scaling analysis, time scales of various sub-processes, e.g., the nucleation delay, recalesence, and total solidification time, have been derived, and compared with simulation results.

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