Padding materials are routinely used to reduce the potential for head injury. The interior of vehicles has been identified as an area where injury can occur in the absence of padding. Head impacts with roof, pillars and support structures have been studied by Fan, Monk, and Friedman. Recent rulemaking by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has identified padding as a potential mechanism for reduction in head injury. Helmets utilize padding for energy management so as to reduce the potential for head injury. (Meyers, Becker). The occurrence of diffuse axonal injury with direct impacts and translational accelerations have been evaluated by Nishimoto. Mclean has suggested that brain injury does not occur without head impact.

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