Cyclic and over-elastic loading can lead to an accumulation of plastic strains. If there is a cyclic load, which is driven by a single parameter, the lifecycle design can be very costly in terms of computational effort. If more than one cyclic load parameter is to be taken into account, which is then a multi-parameter loading, this task can become even more complex and costly. To solve this problem efficiently, different techniques are proposed. One of these techniques is based on step-by-step calculations of the strain ranges for a reduced set of loadings. Once these strain ranges are known, the accumulated state for each individual load case can be estimated using the Simplified Theory of Plastic Zones (STPZ), which requires just a few linear elastic analyses. It is shown that cyclic loads, which occur in intervals, can be replaced by interval-free calculations, which reduce the computational effort enormously. All these techniques lead to a procedure, which delivers good estimations in terms of post-shakedown quantities with very low computational effort compared to incremental step-by-step calculations. The results of the STPZ are presented by an example. A thick-walled cylinder is loaded with a constant axial force and subjected to cyclic shear and cyclic internal pressure. In general, for structures exhibiting ratcheting, hundreds or more load cycles must be analysed via step-by-step calculations until the shakedown state is reached. Using the STPZ, post-shakedown quantities, including strain ranges and accumulated strains can be estimated efficiently and the structure can be designed according to the rules of the ASME Codes. The computational effort and the quality of the results of the STPZ are compared with a step-by-step calculation.

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