The use of tissue engineered scaffolds in combination with progenitor cells has emerged as a promising strategy to restore or replace tissues damaged by disease or trauma. In addition to being biocompatible and exhibiting appropriate mechanical properties, scaffolds must be designed to sustain cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation to ultimately produce the desired tissue once implanted in the patient [1]. Conventional techniques used to assess successful scaffold design include cell viability stains, DNA assays, and histological sectioning/staining. While significant information can be gained from using these methodologies, they are destructive to the sample and only provide snapshots of scaffold and cell development at a limited number of time points. Consequently, key temporal and spatial information relating to tissue regeneration in the scaffold is lost utilizing these techniques. Thus, the ability to non-destructively monitor cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation in real-time is of great importance for scaffold design and tissue engineering [2].

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