Accepted Manuscripts

Magd N. DinAli and Ibrahim Dincer
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4044056
A new renewable energy based dimethyl-ether (DME) production system is proposed in this paper. The DME is produced through the indirect synthesis method where methanol is produced first through carbon hydrogenation process then, methanol derived to a process called methanol dehydration to produce the DME. The integrated system consists of four main subsystems named as carbon capturing and heat recovery system, proton exchange membrane (PEM) hydrogen production system, methanol synthesis system, the DME synthesis system. The main inputs are electrical energy from PV solar panels and thermal energy from flue gas waste heat. The system is modeled and simulated using both Aspen plus process simulation software and Engineering Equation Solver (EES), and assessed based on energy and exergy approaches. The energy and exergy efficiencies are determined to be 40.46 % and 52.81 % respectively.
Caliskan Sarikaya Aysen, Haykiri-Acma Hanzade and Yaman Serdar
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4044057
Woody biomasses such as ash tree (AT), hybrid poplar (HP), and rhododendron (RH) were subjected to torrefaction and carbonization at temperatures of 200ºC and 400ºC. Likewise several lignite samples were carbonized at 750ºC. Various binary fuel blends such as raw lignite/raw biomass, raw lignite/biochar, lignitic char/raw biomass, and lignitic char/biochar were prepared where the fraction of biomass or biochar was 10 wt.% in the blends. The co-combustion characteristics of these blends were investigated through thermal analysis method from the synergetic point of view considering the fuel properties and the combustion performance. Some parameters relevant to the combustion reactivity such as ignition point, maximum rate, peak temperature, and burnout temperature were commented to figure out whether synergistic interaction or additive behavior governs the combustion characteristics of the blends. Also, the combustion performance indices such as (ignition index (Ci), burnout index (Cb), comprehensive combustibility index (S), and the burning stability index (DW)) were estimated. It was concluded that the combinations of the additive behavior and the synergistic interactions governs the co-combustion process, and the kind of the fuels and their thermal history determine the reactivity and the interactions during co-combustion.
Paramvir Singh, Sant Ram Chauhan, Varun Goel and Ashwani K. Gupta
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4044058
Fossil fuel consumption provides a negative impact on the human health and environment in parallel with decreased availability of this valuable natural resource for the future generations to use as a source of chemical energy for all applications in energy, power and propulsion. The diesel fuel consumption in the transport sector is higher than the gasoline in most developing countries for reasons of cost and economy. Bio-diesel fuel offers a good replacement for diesel fuel in compression ignition diesel engines. Earlier investigations by the authors revealed that a blend of 70% Aamla seed oil biodiesel and 30% Eucalyptus oil (AB70EU30) is favorable alternative renewable fuel blend that can be used as a fuel in diesel engines. With any fuel, air-fuel mixing and mixture preparation impacts efficiency, emissions and performance in compression ignition engines. Minor adjustments in engine parameters to improve air-fuel mixing and combustion are deployable approaches to achieve good performance with alternative fuel blends in compression ignition engines. This paper provides the role of minor modification to engine parameters (compression ratio, injection timing and injection pressure) on improved performance using the above mixture of binary fuel blends (AB70EU30). The results showed that the use of AB70EU30 in modified engine resulted in higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake specific fuel consumption as compared to diesel from improved combustion that also resulted in very low tailpipe emissions.
Haitham M. Bahaidaraha, Mohand H. Mohamed and Esmail M. A. Mokheimer
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4044020
In hot and humid climates, air conditioning is an energy intensive process due to the latent heat load. A unitary air conditioner system is proposed to reduce the latent heat of the humid air using a liquid desiccant. The heat liberated by the desiccant is removed by a solution to solution heat exchanger. To restore the concentration of the liquid desiccant, the desiccant solution is regenerated by any low-temperature heat source such as solar energy. In order to make the system compact the membrane heat exchanger is used for the dehumidifier and regenerator.This paper presents the numerical investigation of heat and mass transfer characteristics of a selected membrane dehumidifier under different climatic parameters. Membrane-based parallel-plate and hollow-fiber exchangers are used for this application. A parallel-plate heat-and-mass exchanger (contactor) is comprised of a series of plate-type membrane sheets to form channels. On the other hand, hollow-fibers membranes are packed in a shell to form a shell-and-tube heat-and-mass exchanger. The two streams of both contactors are in a counter parallel flow, separated by micro-porous semi permeable hydrophobic membranes. In this research, the equations governing the transport of heat and mass between the two streams along with the membrane effect in both contactors are solved numerically. The results are compared at different number-of-transfer units (NTU) on the airside and thermal capacity ratios. It is found that the hollow-fiber is more efficient than the parallel-plate.
TOPICS: Fibers, Dehumidification, Solar energy, Membranes, Dehumidifiers, Heat, Latent heat, Shells, Heat exchangers, Low temperature, Climate, Air conditioners, Mass transfer, Air conditioning, Specific heat, Flow (Dynamics), Stress, Heat capacity
Angela Tjia Sin Wu, Seunghwan Keum, Mark Greene, David Reuss and Volker Sick
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4044021
In this study, CFD modeling capability of near-wall flow and heat transfer was evaluated against experimental data. Industry-standard wall models for RANS and LES (law of the wall) were examined against near-wall flow and heat flux measurements from the transparent combustion chamber (TCC-III) engine. The study shows that the measured, normalized velocity profile does not follow law of the wall. This wall model, which provides boundary conditions for the simulations, failed to predict the measured velocity profiles away from the wall. LES showed reasonable prediction in peak heat flux and peak in-cylinder pressure to the experiment, while RANS-heat flux was closer to experimental heat flux but lower in peak pressure. The measurement resolution is higher than that of the simulations, indicating that higher spatial resolution for CFD is needed near the wall to accurately represent the flow and heat transfer. Near-wall mesh refinement was then performed in LES. The wall-normal velocity from the refined mesh case matches better with measurements compared to the wall-parallel velocity. Mesh refinement leads to a normalized velocity profile that matches with measurement in trend only. In addition, the heat flux and its peak value matches well with the experimental heat flux compared to the base mesh.
TOPICS: Flow (Dynamics), Heat transfer, Particulate matter, Internal combustion engines, Computational fluid dynamics, Heat flux, Pressure, Engineering simulation, Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, Simulation, Resolution (Optics), Combustion chambers, Engineering standards, Engines, Heat, Transparency, Modeling, Boundary-value problems, Cylinders
Wenhao He, Asadollah Hayatdavoudi, Keyong Chen, Kaustubh Sawant, Qin Zhang and Chi Zhang
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4043785
Wellbore strengthening materials (WSMs) have been widely used to strengthen the wellbore stability and integrity, especially those lost circulation materials (LCMs) used for mud loss impairment. To enhance the wellbore strengthening effect rather than a loss impairment, plastering effect can be used to increase the fracture gradient of the wall and minimize the probability of inducing new fractures. This is done by smearing the mudcake and pores and forming an internal cake inside the rock matrix using WSMs (or LCMs). Until now, the particle size distribution (PSD) of LCMs have been widely studied for the minimization on the mud loss (e.g., Abran's Rule, Ideal Packing Theory, D90 Rule, Halliburton D50 Rule, etc.). However, there are few empirical rules focused on the maximum wellbore strengthening effect. This study attempts to find the desired PSD of plastering materials to enhance wellbore stability. In this research, the Brazilian test was used to quantify tensile strength. Meanwhile, the filtration characteristics of WSMs through the rock matrix were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy-dispersive system (EDS). Finally, this paper adopts D50 of WSMs to be the mean pore throat size for a maximum improvement on the rock tensile strength. We have observed that the closer the D50 of WSMs in the WSMs to the mean pore throat size, the stronger the saturated rock matrix.
TOPICS: Plastering, Particle size, Rocks, Tensile strength, Fracture (Materials), Fracture (Process), Stability, Filtration, Scanning electron microscopes, Packing (Shipments), Packings (Cushioning), Probability
Tamer Mousa, Mohamed Mahmoud, Esmail M. A. Mokheimer, Dhafer Al-Shehri and Shirish Patil
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4043862
This paper introduces a novel approach to generate downhole steam using thermochemical reactions to overcome the challenges associated with heavy-oil resources. The procedure developed in this paper is applied to a heavy oil reservoir, which contains heavy oil (12-23 API) with an estimated range of original oil in place (OOIP) of 13 to 25 billion barrels while its several technical challenges are limiting its commercial development. One of these challenges is the overlying 1,800-2,000 ft-thick permafrost layer, which causes significant heat losses when steam is injected from surface facilities. The objective of this research is to conduct a feasibility study on the application of new approach, in which steam is generated downhole using thermochemical reaction (SGT) combined with steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), to recover heavy oil from the reservoir.A numerical simulation model for a heavy oil reservoir is built using CMG-STARS simulator, which is then is integrated with a MATLAB framework to study different recovery strategies on the project profitability. The design and operational parameters studied and optimized in this paper involve; 1) well configurations and locations, 2) steam injection rate and quality as well as steam trap in SAGD wells. The results show that the in-situ SGT is a successful approach to recover heavy oil from the reservoir and it yields high project profitability. The main reason of this outperformance is ability of SGT to avoid the significant heat losses and associated costs associated with the surface steam injection.
TOPICS: Computer simulation, Steam, Petroleum extraction, Profitability, Hydrocarbon reservoirs, Heat losses, Reservoirs, Design, Gravity (Force), Drainage, Wells, Matlab, American Petroleum Institute, Permafrost
Jun Yang, Xiangzeng Wang, Yongchao Yang, Xiaolong Peng and Fanhua Zeng
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4043861
Surfactant-alternating-gas (SAG) process is a promising EOR method for tight oil reservoirs. In this study, an empirical model is developed to predict dynamic performance of a SAG process including sweep efficiency of multiple types of well pattern, in which major factors of SAG process are involved, including gas channeling, reservoir heterogeneity, gravity segregation, and the instability of foam structure.A novel empirical model is proposed to estimate recovery factor of a SAG process in typical well patterns, which divides the whole area into three parts based on dominate occupation in-situ fluids. Estimating breakthrough time of each area is the key of this model. A new concept pseudo mobility ratio is proposed to convert the negative effect of heterogeneity into unfavorable increment of mobility ratio.Numerical simulation studies are introduced to validate the proposed SAG empirical model. The comparison shows that the SAG performance model is highly consistent with the numerical simulation results calculated by CMG. Sensitivity analysis is introduced to study the effects of variables in the SAG process, including the fluid injection rate, slug size, slug proportion, and reservoir heterogeneity.Oil production estimated by proposed model is also validated with field production data collected from Ganguyi SAG project in China, and the growth trend of oil production agrees well with the field data. The proposed model provides a fast approach to predict dynamic performance of SAG flooding in field scale, which can be used as a tool to evaluate and optimize current operational parameters.
TOPICS: Reservoirs, Surfactants, Mechanical admittance, Fluids, Computer simulation, Slug flows, Gravity (Force), Tertiary petroleum recovery, China, Floods, Sensitivity analysis, Hydrocarbon reservoirs
Salaheldin Elkatatny, Salem Basfer, Reyad Shawabkeh, Mohamed Bahgat and Mohamed Mahmoud
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4043879
The solubility of Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is very high in different liquids such as water or liquid sulfur. The existence of H2S results in local corrosion and causes cracking to the steel even if the concentration of H2S is low. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate copper nitrate as an H2S scavenger while drilling sour horizontal and multilateral wells and (2) investigate the effect of copper nitrate on the drilling fluid rheological properties and drill-pipe corrosion. The obtained results showed that by adding the copper nitrate (1 lb/bbl) to the drilling mud there was no change in the shear stress-shear rate behavior and the yield point (YP) plastic viscosity (PV) ratio was increased by 20% indicating good hole cleaning. In addition, the filtrate volume reduced by 26% and the filter cake thickness decreased by 50%. The new formulation of the drilling fluid with the copper nitrate is not corrosive (the corrosion rate was 0.00084 lb/ft2 after 24 hrs at 212°F). Breakeven experiments showed that adding copper nitrate to the drilling fluid doubled the adsorption capacity when compared with triazine and tripled the capacity when compared with Scav1 when using I lb of the commercial H2S scavenger per bbl of the drilling fluid.
TOPICS: Copper, Wells, Drilling, Hydrogen, Fluids, Corrosion, Shear (Mechanics), Cracking (Materials), Stress, Rheology, Steel, Viscosity, Drills (Tools), Fracture (Process), Pipes, Filters, Sulfur, Water, Yield point
Honghe Ma, Lu Zhou, Sichen Lv, Jia Wei Chew and Zhijian Wang
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4043554
Various low-NOx combustion technologies have been widely applied as primary measures to limit NOx emission in coal-fired boilers. However, this leads to the formation of high concentrations of H2S in the fuel-rich zone, and thus cause high-temperature corrosion of the water-wall. In order to suppress the formation of H2S near the water-wall, it is necessary to have adequate knowledge of the reaction mechanisms of sulfur species during coal combustion. Therefore, this work systematically reviews the current state-of-the-art concerning reaction mechanisms for sulfur species, mainly including global mechanism, detailed mechanism and reduced mechanism. Besides, two operation techniques, namely, near-wall air and multi-hole-wall air, are introduced to avoid high-temperature corrosion caused by H2S. Finally, some new research directions are recommended to further reveal the reaction mechanisms of sulfur species and to test the feasibility of multi-hole-wall air on preventing high-temperature corrosion.
TOPICS: Combustion, Coal, Sulfur, Corrosion, High temperature, Water, Nitrogen oxides, Emissions, Fuels, Boilers, Combustion technologies

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