Review Article

Four Decades of Research Into the Augmentation Techniques of Savonius Wind Turbine Rotor

[+] Author and Article Information
Nur Alom

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Institute of Technology Meghalaya,
Shillong 793003, India
e-mail: nuralomme19@gmail.com

Ujjwal K. Saha

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Guwahati 781039, India
e-mail: saha@iitg.ernet.in

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 5, 2017; final manuscript received December 11, 2017; published online January 22, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Esmail M. A. Mokheimer.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(5), 050801 (Jan 22, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1620; doi: 10.1115/1.4038785 History: Received November 05, 2017; Revised December 11, 2017

The design and development of wind turbines is increasing throughout the world to offer electricity without paying much to the global warming. The Savonius wind turbine rotor, or simply the Savonius rotor, is a drag-based device that has a relatively low efficiency. A high negative torque produced by the returning blade is a major drawback of this rotor. Despite having a low efficiency, its design simplicity, low cost, easy installation, good starting ability, relatively low operating speed, and independency to wind direction are its main rewards. With the goal of improving its power coefficient (CP), a considerable amount of investigation has been reported in the past few decades, where various design modifications are made by altering the influencing parameters. Concurrently, various augmentation techniques have also been used to improve the rotor performance. Such augmenters reduce the negative torque and improve the self-starting capability while maintaining a high rotational speed of the rotor. The CP of the conventional Savonius rotors lie in the range of 0.12–0.18, however, with the use of augmenters, it can reach up to 0.52 with added design complexity. This paper attempts to give an overview of the various augmentation techniques used in Savonius rotor over the last four decades. Some of the key findings with the use of these techniques have been addressed and makes an attempt to highlight the future direction of research.

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Fig. 1

Various blade profiles used for Savonius rotors: (a) semicircular (1929), (b) semicircular (1930), (c) Bach (1931), (d) Benesh (1988), (e) Benesh (1996), (f) twisted (2004), (g) elliptical (2013), (h) fish-ridged rotor (2013), (i) modified Bach (2014), (j) Roy profile (2014), (k) Bronzinus (2014), (l) airfoil shape (2015), (m) multiple quarter semicircular (2016) (n) multiple miniature semicircular (2017), and (o) spline (2017)

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Fig. 2

Basic parameters of Savonius rotor

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Fig. 3

Lift and drag force on Savonius rotor

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Fig. 4

Various types of augmentation techniques: (a) wind shields [46], (b) wind shields [55], (c) defector plate [56], (d) slatted blade [58], (e) V-shaped defelector [21], (f) nozzle [8], (g) multistaging [59], (h) twisted blades [25], (i) valve [60], (j) circular windshield [61], (k) curtain plates [10], (l) obstacle shield [9], (m) deflector plate [62], (n) shield [37], (o) venting slots [11], (p) concentartors [14], (q) guide vane [15], and (r) conveyor–deflector curtain [30]

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Fig. 5

CP versus TSR for obstacle and without obstacle [9]

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Fig. 6

CP versus TSR for various deflector azimuthal angle [47]

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Fig. 7

CP versus TSR for various flaps [58]

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Fig. 8

Static torque versus angle of rotation for various flaps [64]

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Fig. 9

CP versus various deflector plate angle [21]

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Fig. 10

CP versus velocity for various configuration [65]

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Fig. 11

Revolution per minute versus velocity for various gap width of twisted bladed rotor [25]

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Fig. 17

Variation of CP with TSR [71]

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Fig. 18

Velocity contour of the conventional Savonius rotor [71]: (a) design-II with slots and (b) design without slots

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Fig. 19

Orientation of the concentrators [14]

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Fig. 20

CP versus TSR at various orientations of the concentrators [14]

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Fig. 21

Different guide vane designs by El-Askary et al. [15]: (a) design-I, (b) design-II, and (c) design-III

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Fig. 22

CP versus TSR for various guide vane position [15]

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Fig. 16

Vents at three different positions on the semicircular-bladed profiles [71]: (a) design-I, (b) design-II, and (c) design-III

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Fig. 15

Variation of power versus wind speeds for a vented and capped rotor [11]

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Fig. 14

Variation of CP with TSR for various rotor configurations [37]

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Fig. 13

Power versus RPM for various curtain design [10]

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Fig. 12

CP versus velocity for various valve-aided Savonius rotor [65]



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