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Research Papers: Combustion of Waste/Fluidized Bed

Combustion of Apple Juice Wastes in a Cyclone Combustor for Thermal Energy Generation (ES2009-90152)

[+] Author and Article Information
Elaine Virmond1

Laboratory of Energy and the Environment (LEMA), Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering (EQA), Center of Technology (CTC), Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Campus Universitário, Trindade, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brazile_virmond@yahoo.com.br

Robson L. Schacker

Laboratory of Energy and the Environment (LEMA), Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering (EQA), Center of Technology (CTC), Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Campus Universitário, Trindade, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brazilrobsoncganalitico@yahoo.com.br

Waldir Albrecht

Albrecht Industrial Equipments Ltd., BR-101, Km 29, Pirabeiraba, Joinville, SC 89239-500, Brazilwaldir@albrecht.com.br

Christine A. Althoff

Albrecht Industrial Equipments Ltd., BR-101, Km 29, Pirabeiraba, Joinville, SC 89239-500, Brazilchristine@albrecht.com.br

Maurício de Souza

Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering (EQA), Laboratory of Energy and the Environment (LEMA), Center of Technology (CTC), Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Campus Universitário, Trindade, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brazilhpmauricio@gmail.com

Regina F. P. M. Moreira

Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering (EQA), Laboratory of Energy and the Environment (LEMA), Center of Technology (CTC), Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Campus Universitário, Trindade, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brazilregina@enq.ufsc.br

Humberto J. José

Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering (EQA), Laboratory of Energy and the Environment (LEMA), Center of Technology (CTC), Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Campus Universitário, Trindade, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brazilhumberto@enq.ufsc.br

1

Corresponding author.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 132(4), 041401 (Nov 23, 2010) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002690 History: Received February 01, 2010; Revised September 09, 2010; Published November 23, 2010; Online November 23, 2010

Abstract

The solid waste generated from the apple juice industry (apple bagasse (AB)) was characterized as a fuel, and the potential for its utilization as an alternative energy source was assessed through its combustion in a pilot scale cyclone combustor. A comparative evaluation of the AB and sawdust (SD) properties, as well as of the emissions during the combustion tests, was performed. The high energy content of AB (lower heating value (LHV) equal to $21.09 MJ kg−1$), dry and ash-free (daf) basis, which is 26.9% higher than the LHV of SD ($16.62 MJ kg−1$, daf), and combined with the high volatile matter content ($85.36 wt %$, daf) improve the ignition and burning of the solids. The emissions of CO, $SO2$, and $NOx$ and the total organic carbon (TOC) were compared with guideline limits established by Brazilian and international legislation. AB generated much lower CO than sawdust in spite of almost half of excess air levels (13% compared with 26%) and met even the stringent limit of the German regulation for waste incineration. The unburned carbon percentages found in the ash resulted from SD and AB combustion tests were 0.24% and 0.96% in weight, respectively. The absence of sulfur in AB composition represents an advantage with nondetectable $SO2$. The average level of $NOx$ emission with SD combustion was $242 mg N m−3$ and met all the regulation limits. The average $NOx$ emission with AB combustion though was $642 mg N m−3$ and met the U.S. EPA regulation but was marginally higher than the Brazilian norm by 15%. TOC concentrations remained below the limits considered even though the TOC level was higher in the AB combustion test. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were not detected or were under the quantification limit of the equipment used in their analysis. Comparing the properties, the burning profiles of SD and AB, and the emissions from their combustion tests, it can be stated that the waste originating from the apple juice industry is suitable for direct combustion, constituting a renewable energy source for this industrial sector.

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Figures

Figure 1

Pilot scale cyclone combustor scheme (37) : 1: feed; 2: primary air fan; 3: oil burner; 4: secondary air fan; 5: flue gas recirculation fan; 6: flue gas recirculation duct; 7: cyclonic combustion chamber; 8: cyclone ash separator; 9: ash removal apparatus; 10: exhaust gas; 11: emissions sampling point; 12: flue gas cooler; 13: exhaustor; 14: chimney; 1a–1c are points of temperature measurement

Figure 2

TGA/DTG analysis of AB in helium (upper plot) and synthetic air (lower plot) atmospheres, both at gas flow rate of 0.5 l min−1 and heating rate of 10°C min−1

Figure 3

TGA/DTG analysis of SD in helium (upper plot) and synthetic air (lower plot) atmospheres, both at gas flow rate of 0.5 l min−1 and heating rate of 10°C min−1

Figure 4

Temperature profile for SD combustion test: lines 1a and 1b are temperatures at the combustor inlet and outlet, respectively, and line 1c is the temperature in the cyclone immediately after the combustion chamber

Figure 5

Temperature profile for AB combustion test: lines 1a and 1b are temperatures at the combustor inlet and outlet, respectively, and line 1c is the temperature in the cyclone immediately after the combustion chamber

Figure 6

CO, SO2, and NOx emissions for SD combustion test, O2ref=7%

Figure 7

CO, SO2, and NOx emissions for AB combustion test, O2ref=7%

Figure 8

Chromatogram of total ions obtained in the BTEX analysis

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