Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sailing Ships

[+] Author and Article Information
Max F. Platzer

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Innovative Power Generation Systems (iPGS),
University of California,
Davis, CA 95616
e-mail: maxmillian.platzer@gmail.com

Nesrin Sarigul-Klijn

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Innovative Power Generation Systems (iPGS),
University of California,
Davis, CA 95616
e-mail: nsarigulklijn@ucdavis.edu

J. Young

The University of New South Wales,
Canberra ACT 2600, Australia
e-mail: J.Young@adfa.edu.au

M. A. Ashraf

The University of New South Wales,
Canberra ACT 2600, Australia
e-mail: M.ashraf@adfa.edu.au

J. C. S. Lai

The University of New South Wales,
Canberra ACT 2600, Australia
e-mail: j.tai@adfa.edu.au

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 1, 2012; final manuscript received December 4, 2013; published online February 20, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Laura Schaefer.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 136(2), 021203 (Feb 20, 2014) (5 pages) Paper No: JERT-12-1201; doi: 10.1115/1.4026200 History: Received September 01, 2012; Revised December 04, 2013

Vast ocean areas of planet Earth are exposed year-round to strong wind currents. We suggest that this untapped ocean wind power be exploited by the use of sailing ships. The availability of constantly updated meteorological information makes it possible to operate the ships in ocean areas with optimum wind power so that the propulsive ship power can be converted into electric power by means of ship-mounted hydro-power generators. Their electric power output then is fed into ship-mounted electrolyzers to convert sea water into hydrogen and oxygen. In this paper, we estimate the ship size, sail area, and generator size to produce a 1.5 MW electrical power output. We describe a new oscillating-wing hydro-power generator and present results of model tests obtained in a towing tank. Navier-Stokes computations are presented to provide an estimate of the power extraction efficiency and drag coefficient of such a generator which depends on a range of parameters such as foil maximum pitch angles, plunge amplitude, phase between pitch and plunge and load. Also, we present a discussion of the feasibility of sea water electrolysis and of the reconversion of hydrogen and oxygen into electricity by means of shore-based hydrogen-oxygen power plants.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Al Gore, 2009, “Our Choice,” Melcher Media.
Jay, I., and Bracken, H., 2008, Apollo's Fire, Igniting America's Clean Energy Economy, Island Press, Washington, DC.
James, H., 2009, Storms of my Grandchildren, Bloomsbury, New York.
Peter, D. W., 2010, The Flooded Earth—Our Future in a World without Ice Caps, Basic Books, New York.
Vaclav, S., 2008, Energy in Nature and Society, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Lester, R. B., 2011, World on the Edge, How to Prevent Environmental and Economic Collapse, W. W. Norton & Co., New York.
Max, F. P., and Nesrin, S.-K., 2012, Aerohydronautical Power Engineering: Is It the Key to Abundant Renewable Energy and Potable Water?, University Publishers, San Diego, CA.
Max, F. P., and Nesrin, S.-K., 2009, “A Novel Approach to Extract Power from Free-Flowing Water and High-Altitude Jet Streams,” ASME Energy Sustainability Conference, San Francisco, CA, 19-23 June, Paper No. ES 2009-90146.
Max, F. P., and Nesrin, S.-K., 2010, “A New Oscillating-Foil Power Generator for Sailingship-Based Renewable Energy Generation,” ASME Energy Sustainability Conference, Phoenix, AZ, 17–22 May.
Shiva Prasad, B. G., 2010, “Energy Efficiency, Sources and Sustainability,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132(2), p. 020301. [CrossRef]
Fronk, B. M., Neal, R., and Garimella, S., 2010, “Evolution of the Transition to a World Driven by Renewable Energy,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132(2), p. 021009. [CrossRef]
Vellini, M., and Tonziello, J., 2011, “Hydrogen Use in an Urban District: Energy and Environmental Comparisons,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132(4), p. 042601. [CrossRef]
Shahid, M., Bidin, N., Mat, Y., and Inayat ullah, M., 2012, “Production and Enhancement of Hydrogen from Water: A Review,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(3), p. 034002. [CrossRef]
Ajanovic, A., Jungmeier, G., Beermann, M., and Haas, R., 2013, “Driving on Renewables—On the Prospects of Alternative Fuels up to 2050 from an Energetic Point-of-View in European Union Countries,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 135(3), p. 031201. [CrossRef]
Hongxuang, P., 2001, “Numerical Computation of Multi-Hull Ship Resistance and Motion,” Ph.D. thesis, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Freej, S., 1985, “Exposition of Calculation Methods to Analyze Wind Propulsion on Cargo Ships,” J. Wind. Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 19(1–3), pp. 187–203. [CrossRef]
Hoppe, K. G., 1999, “Hydrofoil Catamaran Development in South Africa,” HIPER'99 International Conference at Zevenwacht, South Africa, 17–19 March.
McKinney, W., and DeLaurier, J., 1981, “The Wingmill: An Oscillating-Wing Windmill,” J. Energy, 5(2), pp. 109–115. [CrossRef]
Jones, K. D., Davids, S. T., and Platzer, M. F., 1999, “Oscillating-Wing Power Generation,” 3rd ASME/JSME Joint Fluids Engineering Conference, San Francisco, CA.
The Engineering Business Limited, Stingray Tidal Energy Device-Phase 3, 2005, Tech. Report No. T/06/00230/00/00.
Kinsey, T., and Dumas, G., 2008, “Parametric Study of an Oscillating Airfoil in a Power-Extraction Regime,” AIAA J., 46(6), pp. 1318–1380. [CrossRef]
Kinsey, T., and Dumas, G., 2010, “Testing and Analysis of an Oscillating Hydrofoils Turbine Concept,” ASME FEDSM-ICNMM2010-30869, Aug. 1–5.
Platzer, M. F., Ashraf, M. A., Young, J., and Lai, J. C. S., 2010, “Extracting Power in Jet Streams: Pushing the Performance of Flapping-Wing Technology,” 27th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, Nice, France, 19–24 Sept.
Young, J., Ashraf, M., Lai, J. C. S., and Platzer, M. F., 2010, “Numerical simulation of Flow-Driven Flapping-Wing Turbines for Wind and Water Power Generation,” Proceedings of 17th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Auckland, New Zealand, 5–9 Dec.
Ashraf, M. A., Young, J., Lai, J. C. S., and Platzer, M. F., 2011, “Numerical Analysis of an Oscillating-Wing Wind and Hydropower Generator,” AIAA J., 49(7), pp. 1374–1386. [CrossRef]
Young, J., Ashraf, M. A., Lai, J. C. S., and Platzer, M. F., 2013, “Numerical Simulation of Fully Passive Flapping Foil Power Generation,” AIAA J. (on-line pre-print). [CrossRef]
Kato, Z., Izumiya, K., Kumnagai, N., and Hashimoto, K., 2009, “Energy-Saving Seawater Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production,” J. Solid State Electrochem., 13(2), pp. 219–224. [CrossRef]
Koji, H., 2010, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Japan, private email communication.
Jericha, H., Hacker, V., Sanz, W., and Zotter, G., 2010, “Thermal Steam Power Plant Fired by Hydrogen and Oxygen in Stoichiometric Ratio, Using Fuel Cells and Gas Turbine Cycle Components,” June 14–18, Paper No. ASME GT2010-22282.
Jericha, H., 1985, “Efficient Steam Cycles With Internal Combustion of Hydrogen and Stoichiometric Oxygen,” CIMAC Paper.
Kim, J., and Park, C., 2010, “Wind Power Generation With a Parawing on Ships, a Proposal,” J. Energy, 35, pp. 1425–1432. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Sail area versus ship speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Generator foil area versus ship speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Mechanically controlled generator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Estimated and measured steady drag

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Contours of power extraction efficiency versus foil pitch angle and nondimensional load

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Contours of drag coefficient versus foil pitch angle and nondimensional load

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Generator drag versus water speed



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In